1. Alif Lām Mīm – letters like these begin certain sūrahs of the Qur’ān. Although they have no meaning in themselves, they do however have a purpose. Since there is divine wisdom contained in everything in the Qur’ān, these letters point to the miracle of the Qur’ān, made up of the letters which make up the words we speak. Therefore, when sūrahs begin with letters in this way, they are usually followed with a verse about the Qur’ān, as we see in this sūrah.
2. This is the Qur’ān, in which there is nothing of any doubt, neither in terms of its origin, nor in terms of its meaning. It is the word of Allah, guiding those who are mindful of Allah to the way that leads to Him.
4. They believe in the revelation that Allah sent down to you, O Prophet, and in that which He revealed to all the other prophets before you (peace be upon them), without distinction; and they have a definite belief in the Afterlife, with its rewards and punishments.
4. They believe in the revelation that Allah sent down to you, O Prophet, and in that which He revealed to all the other prophets before you (peace be upon them), without distinction; and they have a definite belief in the Afterlife, with its rewards and punishments.
• الثقة المطلقة في نفي الرَّيب دليل على أنه من عند الله؛ إذ لا يمكن لمخلوق أن يدعي ذلك في كلامه.
1. The Qur’ān contains conclusive proof that it came from Allah, the Wise, the Knowing.
• لا ينتفع بما في القرآن الكريم من الهدايات العظيمة إلا المتقون لله تعالى المعظِّمون له.
2. It is those who are mindful of Allah and glorify Him who benefit from the great guidance within the Qur’ān.
• من أعظم مراتب الإيمانِ الإيمانُ بالغيب؛ لأنه يتضمن التسليم لله تعالى في كل ما تفرد بعلمه من الغيب، ولرسوله بما أخبر عنه سبحانه.
3. Believing in [Al-Ghaib] is one of the greatest degrees of faith, because it means accepting what Allah alone knows about [the Ghaib] and what He has told the Prophet (peace be upon him) about it. Al-Ghaib: literally means the unrealisable i.e. things that are beyond our senses of touch, sight, hearing etc. This includes belief in Allah, Angels, Revealed Scripture, Allah’s messengers, Day of Recompense, and Al-Qadar (divine pre-ordainments). It also includes what Allah and His Messenger informed about the past, present and future e.g. the creation of the heavens and earth, botanical and zoological life, stories about the nations of the past and about Paradise and Hell etc.
• كثيرًا ما يقرن الله تعالى بين الصلاة والزكاة؛ لأنَّ الصلاة إخلاص للمعبود، والزكاة إحسان للعبيد، وهما عنوان السعادة والنجاة.
4. Allah often mentions prayer and giving Zakat together. Prayer shows sincerity to Allah, and giving Zakat shows kindness to creation. Together they are the route to happiness and success.
• الإيمان بالله تعالى وعمل الصالحات يورثان الهداية والتوفيق في الدنيا، والفوز والفلاح في الأُخرى.
5. Having faith in God and doing good works leads to guidance and success in this world and the next.
7. Allah has sealed their hearts, locking inside them their falsehood, and has placed a seal on their hearing, so that they do not listen to nor accept the truth. He has put a cover over their eyes, so that they do not see the truth in its clarity. They will suffer greatly. After describing the disbelievers, who are at fault inside and out, He describes the hypocrites, who appear good on the outside, but are not so inwardly:
9. They think that they can deceive Allah and the believers by acting outside as if they believe, while inside hiding their disbelief; but really, they only deceive themselves, without realising it. Allah knows all that is secret and hidden, and has told the believers what these people are like.
10. Allah increases the disease in their hearts, and they reap what they sow. Because they lied Allah increases the disease of doubts in their hearts, by adding hesitation to their uncertainty, hence they only gain what they deserve. They will have a painful suffering in the worst parts of Hell because they lied against Allah, and the people, and rejected the message brought by Muhammad (peace be upon him).
13. When they are told to have faith as the companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him) did, they reply, looking down on people and making fun of them, saying “should we have faith like simple-minded people do?” In fact, it is they who are the fools, but they are unaware of this.
14. When the hypocrites meet the believers, they say, ‘We believe what you believe’, as they think it will benefit them if they act like this; but when they are alone with their leaders, they say, ‘We are really with you and follow you. We are only making fun of them when we say that we believe’.
15. Allah mocks the hypocrites for their mocking of the believers, and He will repay in equal measure for their behavior. They are treated as believers in this world, but will be repaid for their lying and deception in the next life. He allows them to become more and more lost and to do more and more wrong, so they remain confused and doubtful about the truth.
• أن من طبع الله على قلوبهم بسبب عنادهم وتكذيبهم لا تنفع معهم الآيات وإن عظمت.
1. Those whose hearts Allah has sealed because of their stubbornness and disbelief will not benefit from the signs of Allah, no matter how great they may be.
• أن إمهال الله تعالى للظالمين المكذبين لم يكن عن غفلة أو عجز عنهم، بل ليزدادوا إثمًا، فتكون عقوبتهم أعظم.
2. Allah allows those who reject faith and do wrong to do as they please, not because He does not know what they are doing or is unable to stop them, but to allow them to accumulate sins for which they will be held responsible in the next life.
17. They are like someone who lights a fire, but when it has lit up what is around him, Allah takes away the light from the flames: leaving them in the darkness, unable to see. Allah shows us what the hypocrites are like with two examples: one related to fire, and the other to water. In the example related to fire, He compares them to someone who lights a fire to illuminate things, but when it is lit and he thinks he will benefit from its light, it goes out, smoldering and leaving him in the dark. Such people then remain in the dark, unable to see anything or find a way.
19. In the example related to water, a storm full of darkness, thunder and lightning is described. Some people are terrified by it and put their fingers in their ears because of the strength of the thunderclaps, scared of death. Allah surrounds the disbelievers, and has absolute power over them, so they cannot escape Him.
20. The brightness of the lightning almost blinds them. Whenever it flashes, lighting things up, they go forward and when there is no light they remain in darkness, unable to move. If God willed, He could take away their hearing and their sight, in His absolute power over all things; and not return it to them because they turn away from the truth. The rain in the storm could be likened to the Qur’ān, the thunderclap to its warnings, and the lightning to truths, appearing to them from time to time. The covering of their ears to the thunderclaps likened to their turning away from the truth, and not responding to it. The hypocrites are similar to the people in these examples because they receive no benefit from anything. In the example of the fire, all they receive is darkness and a smoldering fire. In the example of the storm-cloud, all they receive is fear and alarm because of the thunder and lightning. Similarly, the hypocrites see nothing in Islam except difficulty and harshness.
21. O people, worship no one other than your Lord, because He created you and the people before you, so that you may save yourselves from suffering, by following His instructions and keeping away from what He has prohibited.
22. It is He Who made the earth like a carpet spread out in front of you and it is He Who masterfully constructed the sky over you. Through His grace rain falls, producing different crops from the earth, as produce for you. Do not, then, consider others to be equal to Allah, when you know that He alone is worthy of being worshipped.
23. Allah challenges those who have any doubt about the Qur’ān revealed to His servant, Muhammad (peace be upon him), to produce a chapter just like it, and to call their helpers, if they are truthful about what they say.
24. If they are unable to do so – and they will never be able to do it – they should be mindful of the fire of Hell, which burns with people who deserve the torment, and with the idols which they used to worship instead of Allah: punishing both the idol-worshipers and what they worshiped. The fire of Hell has been prepared as a punishment for the disbelievers.
25. The warnings in the previous verses were for the disbelievers, so now the Messenger is told to address the believers: Give good news to those who have faith in Allah and do good, and tell them about that which will please them: gardens in Paradise, with rivers flowing beneath their palaces and trees. Whenever they are given fruits from the gardens to consume, they will comment on how similar they are to the fruits of the earth, saying, ‘This is similar to what we had before’. They will be given fruits that carry the same name and shape, so that they may recognise and desire them, but they will in fact taste differently. In the Garden they will be paired with their mates, who will not have any unpleasant traits that people have on earth; and they will live there in eternal bliss, unlike the bliss of the earth which is only temporary.
26. Allah does not shy away from using whatever example He wishes, whether that be of a gnat or anything bigger than it. The believers know and trust that there is wisdom in the use of such examples, while the disbelievers will make fun, asking each other why Allah uses examples with lowly creatures, such as gnats, flies and spiders. Allah replies that in these examples lie guidance, direction and a test for people. There are many people who are misguided by Allah through these examples, because they refuse to consider them; and there are many who He guides along the right path because they learn from them. He does not misguide anyone except those who deserve to be misguided. They are those who do not obey Him.
27.Those who break the promise they made with God to serve Him alone and follow His way. This is in the verse, “He made them testify concerning themselves: “Am I not your Lord?” They said, “Yes, we bear witness!” (7:172) He affirmed this by sending the prophets and the scriptures. Those who do not take their promises with God seriously are those who cut off from things which God instructed not to, such as blood relations and they work to spread corruption on earth through their wrongdoing. They are the losers in this world and the next.
28. Strange is the situation of the disbelievers. How can you disbelieve the Oneness of Allah when you can see the signs of His power in your own existence? You were nothing, and He brought you to life; then you will die, and you shall be brought to life again. Then you will return to Him and be held accountable.
29. It is Allah alone Who created everything on earth for you: the countless rivers, trees and so on, from which you benefit and enjoy. Then He turned to the sky, making it into seven heavens, and He has knowledge of everything.
• من كمال النعيم في الجنة أن ملذاتها لا يكدرها أي نوع من التنغيص، ولا يخالطها أي أذى.
1. The pleasures of the Garden are not spoiled by anything, nor mixed with any hardship.
• الأمثال التي يضربها الله تعالى لا ينتفع بها إلا المؤمنون؛ لأنهم هم الذين يريدون الهداية بصدق، ويطلبونها بحق.
2. The examples Allah uses are only of benefit to the believers, because they really wish to be guided, and truly ask to be guided.
• من أبرز صفات الفاسقين نقضُ عهودهم مع الله ومع الخلق، وقطعُهُم لما أمر الله بوصله، وسعيُهُم بالفساد في الأرض.
3. The most obvious features of those who deviate from the truth are that they break their promises with Allah and His creation, leave what Allah told them to hold on to and their actions cause trouble on the earth.
• الأصل في الأشياء الإباحة والطهارة؛ لأن الله تعالى امتنَّ على عباده بأن خلق لهم كل ما في الأرض.
4. The origin of things is that they are allowed and pure – unless the sacred law prohibits them – because Allah blessed humanity, making everything on the earth for them.
30. Allah tells His Prophet and humankind that He said to the angels that He would put humans on earth who will give birth to other humans, to inhabit it according to His laws. The angels asked their Lord, trying to understand, what the wisdom behind making the children of Adam guardians of the earth was, when they would ruin things in it, and kill in it, while the angels always do as He tells them, and recognise His greatness, praising Him and honouring His power and perfection. Allah replied to their question, saying that He knew the deep wisdom behind His creation of them, and behind making them guardians, and the angels did not.
31. To reveal the position of Adam, Allah taught him the names of everything, living things and objects, their pronunciation and meanings. Then he put them before the angels, instructing them to tell Him the names if they were telling the truth when they said that they were a nobler and better creation than Adam.
32. Recognising their shortcomings and that everything comes from Allah, they said that they acknowledged that His judgement and sacred law could not be doubted, and that they had no knowledge except for the knowledge He had given them, accepting that He is the Knowing, from Whom nothing is hidden, and the Wise in His decrees and laws.
33. Then Allah told Adam to tell them the names. When Adam told the angels the names of things, as he had been taught, Allah reminded the angels that He had told them that He knew everything hidden in the heavens and the earth, and what they made public and what they said inside of themselves.
34. Allah reveals that He told the angels to prostrate to Adam out of recognition and respect, so they prostrated to him, eager to do as He told them, except for Iblīs, or Satan, who was originally from the jinn. Due to the excellence of his worship, Allah had entered Iblīs into the company of the angels; but he then returned to his lowly nature, refusing to prostrate as Allah told him to, and becoming proud towards Adam, leading to him becoming a disbeliever.
35. Allah told Adam to live with his wife, Eve, in the Garden, with nothing to ruin their bliss. They were instructed to consume the delightful food from anywhere in the Garden, but also to avoid going near a particular tree which they were forbidden to eat from. If they ate from the prohibited tree, they would become wrongdoers for disobeying Him.
36. Satan did not stop whispering to them, trying to trick them, until he made them slip and fall by eating from the tree which Allah had told them not to. For this Allah sent them out of the Garden, telling them and Satan to go down to the earth, some of them enemies to others, where they would stay and live, enjoying the good things there until their lifespan, and until the Final Hour arrived.
37. Adam received the words given to him by Allah, and was inspired to ask for forgiveness with them. These words of forgiveness are mentioned in Sūrah Al-A‘rāf: 23: ‘They said, “Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves. If You do not forgive us and have mercy on us, we will certainly be of the losers”’. Allah accepted Adam’s turning to Him and forgave him, for He is always forgiving and Merciful towards His creation.
38. Allah told them to go down together from the Garden to the earth, and said that when He sends guidance, through the prophets, those who follow it and have faith in His prophets will have nothing to fear in the world to come, and will not feel sorrow about what passed them by on earth.
40. O Children of the Prophet Jacob, remember the many blessings He gave you and be thankful for them. Fulfil your contract to Him, having faith in Him, His prophets and His sacred laws. If you fulfil your contract, He will fulfil His contract to you, as well as His promises to you of a good life on earth and a beautiful reward on the Day of Judgement. Fear Him alone and do not break His contract.
41. Also, have faith in the Qur’ān which Allah revealed to Muhammad (peace be upon him) confirming what came in the Torah, before its corruption, concerning the Oneness of Allah and the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him), and do not be the first group to disbelieve. Do not exchange His signs – the verses which He has revealed – for the small price of position or leadership, and avoid His displeasure and punishment.
42. Do not hide the truth, which He revealed to His prophets, with lies and falsehood; and do not hide the truth of the description of Muhammad which came in His scripture, when you know what the truth is and are convinced of it.
43. Establish the prayers properly with its obligatory and recommended parts; give Zakat from your wealth, which Allah has put in your hands; and be humble to Allah with those who are humble of Muhammad’s nation (peace be upon him).
44. What is more immoral than telling others to have faith and do good when you, upon reading the Torah, turn away from it and forget it yourselves, while knowing that it orders you to follow Allah’s religion and have faith in His prophets? Have you then no sense?
45. Ask for help in sacred and worldly affairs, with patience and prayer, which bring you close to Allah and allow you to reach Him, so that He will help you, protect you and take away your difficulties. Prayer is a hardship except for those who are humble to their Lord.
48. Protect yourselves against the Day of Judgement by following Allah’s instructions and staying away from what He has prohibited. On that day no soul will be able to help another in any way, and no pleading on their behalf will be accepted to benefit them or protect them from harm, except with Allah’s permission, and no ransom will be taken, even if it were to be the earth filled with gold. They will have no helpers on that day. Without appeal, ransom or helper, to where will they turn?
49. O Israelites! Remember when Allah saved you from the people of Pharaoh, who were tormenting you, slaughtering your sons so you would not survive, and letting your women live so they could serve them, taking great pains to humiliate and insult you. When you were saved from the oppression of Pharaoh and his people, it was a great test for you from your Lord, to see if you would be thankful.
50. Remember Allah’s favour in saving you when He parted the sea and made it a dry path for you to go through, while drowning your enemies, Pharaoh and his followers, before your very eyes, as you looked on.
51. Also, remember that the forty nights appointed to Moses were from the blessings of Allah, in which the revelation of the Torah, with its light and guidance, was completed. Yet you went and worshipped the calf during that period, which made you into wrongdoers.
53. Also, remember that Allah’s giving Moses (peace be upon him) the Torah as a criterion between truth and falsehood, discriminating between guidance and misguidance, so that you might be guided to the truth through it, were from the blessings of Allah.
54. Also, remember that Allah’s allowing you to ask His forgiveness for worshipping the calf, when Moses (peace be upon him) told you that you had wronged yourselves by taking the calf as a god and worshipping it, were from the blessings of Allah. Moses told you to ask for forgiveness and repent to your Creator by some of you killing others, because turning to Him in this way was better for you than persisting in disbelief, which would lead to an eternity in the fire of Hell. So, you did this with Allah’s approval, and He forgave you, for He is Forgiving and Merciful with His servants.
55. Also, remember when you shamelessly addressed Moses (peace be upon him), saying that you would not believe him until you saw Allah with your own eyes, in the open before you, and the lightning struck you and killed you, whilst some of you looked at the others.
57. Another of Allah’s blessings was that He sent clouds to shade you from the heat of the sun when you were wandering the earth; and He sent down manna, a sweet drink similar to honey, and quails for you, telling you to consume of the good things He had provided you with. Their ingratitude and disbelief for these blessings did not affect Allah in any way, but they wronged themselves, losing their share from the good they had done and exposing themselves to suffering.
58. Remember, from Allah’s blessings upon you, when He told you to enter Jerusalem and abundantly consume, with ease, from the good things in it from any place you wanted. He told you to prostrate in humility to Him when you entered, asking Him to remove your sins, so that He might answer you, and increase those who do good actions, rewarding them in this way.
59. The wrongdoers among them changed what they were told to do and say, and entered dragging themselves on their rears, saying, ‘A grain in a hair’, mocking Allah’s sacred law. Due to their actions He sent down a torment from the sky upon the wrongdoers among them, because they trespassed over the limits of the law and disobeyed His command.
60. Remember, from Allah’s blessings upon you, when you were in the wilderness, and you suffered great thirst, so Moses prayed to his Lord and asked that He give you water. Allah commanded that he hit the rock with his stick, and when he hit it, twelve springs appeared from it, the same number as the number of your tribes. Water gushed from them, and Allah made clear to each tribe which was their spring to drink from, so that there would be no conflict between you. And He told you to eat and drink from what He provided for you, without any effort or work from you, and told you not to put your efforts into ruining things on earth.
61. Also, remember when you were ungrateful for the blessings of your Lord, and became tired of the manna and quails He sent down to you, and said that you would not put up with one type of food. So, you asked Moses (peace be upon him) to ask Allah to produce herbs, vegetables, cucumbers, grains, lentils and onions from the plants on earth for you to consume. Moses said, disapproving of your request, that you wanted to exchange manna and quails which were better and nobler and came to you without effort or work, for what was lesser and worse. You were told to go down from this land to any town, and that you would find what you had asked for in its fields and markets. Due to following whims and repeatedly turning away from what Allah chose for them, they were disgraced, given poverty and misery. They earned Allah’s anger, because they turned away from His religion, and disbelieved His signs, and unjustly and brutally killed His prophets – all because they rebelled against Allah and used to transgress His limits.
62. Those who have faith from the nation of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and from the communities who came before him – from the Jews, the Christians and Sabians (said to be a group who followed prophets who were of the faith of Abraham, peace be upon him) – will have their reward with their Lord. They will not fear what awaits them in the Afterlife, nor grieve over what happened to them on earth. This was the case before the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was sent. Now his message of Islam – devotion and dedication to Allah – is the only way of life accepted by Allah, as He said, ‘Whoever seeks a path other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him’ [ Sūrah Āl ͑Imrān: 85].
63. Remember when Allah made a contract with you: that you should have faith in Allah and His prophets. He raised the mountain over you, inspiring awe and warning you against breaking the contract, commanding you to take what He had revealed to you of the Torah seriously and carefully, not taking it for granted or being lazy about it. He told you to remember and reflect upon it, so that you might be careful about what you earn from Allah.
64. Yet after making a firm promise, you broke the contract and rebelled. If it had not been for Allah’s favour in His tolerance towards you, and His mercy, accepting when you asked for forgiveness, then you would be among the losers because of your turning away and rebellion.
65. You know well the story of your ancestors, who prepared to fish on the Sabbath when they were not allowed to do so, and did so through trickery. They set up nets in preparation for the Sabbath so Allah made them into monkeys, rejected and cast out, because of their trickery.
66. Allah made this village, which had transgressed the limits, an example to the surrounding villages, and an example to those who came after it, so that they would not do the same and deserve the same fate. He made it a reminder for those mindful of Allah, who are careful of facing the consequences of their actions in the life to come, and are mindful of Allah’s repayment for those who transgress the limits.
67. From the stories of your ancestors, remember what happened between them and Moses (peace be upon him) when he told them that Allah had instructed them to slaughter a cow. Instead of hurrying to do so, they said, stubbornly, ‘Are you making fun of us?’ Moses replied that he asked for Allah’s protection from being one of the ignorant people, who lied about Allah, and made fun of other people.
68. They asked Moses to call on his Lord to clarify what the cow they had been told to sacrifice was like. Moses told them that Allah said that it was neither old nor young, but was between the two; and he told them to do what Allah had instructed them to.
69. They continued debating and being stubborn, telling Moses (peace be upon him) to call on his Lord to make clear to them the colour of the cow. Moses told them that Allah said that it was a yellow cow, with a very strong colour, which was pleasing to everyone who saw it.
• الحُكم المذكور في الآية الأولى لِمَا قبل بعثة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأما بعد بعثته فإن الدين المَرْضِيَّ عند الله هو الإسلام، لا يقبل غيره، كما قال الله تعالى: ﴿ وَمَنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنْه ﴾ (آل عمران: 85).
1. Allah sometimes punishes disobedient people in this life, before the Afterlife, as a way of cautioning other people, so that they are careful of going against Allah’s sacred law.
• قد يُعَجِّلُ الله العقوبة على بعض المعاصي في الدنيا قبل الآخرة؛ لتكون تذكرة يتعظ بها الناس فيحذروا مخالفة أمر الله تعالى.
2. Trying to cheat the sacred law is forbidden, because Allah is not deceived.
• أنّ من ضيَّق على نفسه وشدّد عليها فيما ورد موسَّعًا في الشريعة، قد يُعاقَبُ بالتشديد عليه.
3. When people would make open matters of the sacred law more difficult and strict for themselves than they are, Allah would sometimes make things even stricter for them as a result.
70. They continued in their stubbornness, telling Moses to ask Allah to further clarify the nature of the cow. They said that there were many cows fitting the description, and they could not therefore identify it, insisting that they would then, if Allah willed, be guided to the right cow for sacrifice.
71. Then Moses told them that Allah said the cow was not used for ploughing or irrigating the earth; she had no faults, and no marks of a different colour other than her yellow. They then replied that now he had brought them a detailed description, correctly identifying the cow. They sacrificed it, after almost not having done it, due to all their arguing and stubbornness.
72. Allah reminds the Israelites about when they killed one of their own. They accused each other of it, each rejecting the accusation of having killed him, and accusing someone else, until they fought. But Allah revealed what they were hiding about the murder of the innocent person.
73. Allah told them to hit the murdered man with a piece of the cow which they had been told to sacrifice. He would then bring him to life to tell them who the murderer was. They did this and he told them who had killed him. As this man was brought back to life by Allah, so will He bring the dead back to life on the Day of Judgement. Allah gives humanity clear signs of His power, to make them reflect and understand, and have true faith in Him.
74. Their hearts became hard after these great lessons and incredible miracles, until they became like rocks, and even harder than rocks, because they never changed, whereas rocks change and transform. Rivers spring from some rocks, and some split, and water comes out of them, gushing and flowing on the earth, benefitting people and animals. And some rocks fall from the heights of the mountains in awe of Allah. But their hearts were not like that. Allah is not unaware of anything we do, but knows everything, and will hold us to account for it.
75. O believers, do not expect, after knowing their true nature and how stubborn they are, that they will be truthful and respond to you. A group of their scholars heard the word of Allah, revealed to them in the Torah, and then changed its words and meanings after they had understood what it really meant; and they did this fully aware of the seriousness of the crime.
76. An instance of their inconsistencies and deviousness occurred when some of them met some believers and acknowledged the truth of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the correctness of his message, as the Torah witnessed to it. But when they were alone with one another they blamed each other because of these acknowledgments, saying that the Muslims might use them as proof that they recognised the truth of Muhammad’s prophethood.
78. A group of them do not know how to read or write and do not know what is in the Torah or what it says. They have only lies which they heard from some of their leaders, and think it is the Torah revealed by Allah.
79. Misery and great suffering awaits those who write the scripture with their own hands, and then say, falsely, that it comes from Allah, exchanging the truth and guidance for a small gain in this world, such as money or leadership. They will experience misery and suffering because of what their hands have written, through which they told lies about Allah, and for whatever wealth or leadership they may gain through these lies.
80. They say, falsely, that the fire of Hell will not touch them and they will not be in it except for a few days. Ask them, O Muhammad, if they have had a promise from Allah that this will be the case: if they have had a promise, then Allah will not break His contract; or ask them if they are saying about Allah what they do not know.
83. Remember the promise made between Allah and the Israelites: to worship Him alone; to be kind to parents, relatives, orphans and the poor; to say good words to people, telling them to do what is right and not what is wrong, without harshness or severity; to perform the prayer as instructed; and to give Zakat to those who have a right to it. But all they did after making this promise was to turn away, rejecting the promise they had made.
• بعض أهل الكتاب يدّعي العلم بما أنزل الله، والحقيقة أن لا علم له بما أنزل الله، وإنما هو الوهم والجهل.
1. Some of the People of the Scripture claim knowledge of what Allah has revealed, when they do not really have knowledge of it, and what they say is only from their imagination and ignorance.
• من أعظم الناس إثمًا من يكذب على الله تعالى ورسله ؛ فينسب إليهم ما لم يكن منهم.
2. Some of the greatest wrongdoers are those who lie about Allah and His Messenger.
• مع عظم المواثيق التي أخذها الله تعالى على اليهود وشدة التأكيد عليها، لم يزدهم ذلك إلا إعراضًا عنها ورفضًا لها.
3. The favours and blessings that Allah gave to the Israelites made them lose their way, because they thought, not understanding Allah and His divine wisdom, that He would not punish them after He had given them such blessings.
85. Then you broke the contract: some of you killing others, and forcing a group of them to leave their homes, assisted by their enemies, unjustly and with aggression. Then if prisoners came to you in the hands of enemies, you pay their ransom and rescue them from their captivity, even though making them leave their homes was forbidden to you. How is it that you believe in some of what is in the Torah about the ransom of captives, and reject some of it (about not killing each other and driving people from where they live)? For those of you who do that, there is only humiliation in this life and the most severe torment in the Afterlife. Allah knows what you do; in fact, He is fully aware, and He will hold you to account.
87. Allah gave Moses the Torah, and followed him with other messengers. He gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear signs of the truth of what he came with, such as bringing the dead back to life and healing the blind and the lepers, and He strengthened him with the angel Gabriel, the Holy Spirit (peace be upon him). Yet is it, O Israelites, that whenever a messenger comes to you from Allah with what does not agree with your whims, you become full of pride towards the truth, looking down on the messengers of Allah? Do you reject a group of them and kill a group of them?
88. The Israelites argued that their stubbornness was because their hearts were wrapped in a cover, so that none of what was said to them could reach them, or make sense to them. On the contrary, Allah deprived them of His mercy due to their disbelief, so that they will not have faith.
• من أعظم الكفر: الإيمان ببعض ما أنزل الله والكفر ببعضه؛ لأن فاعل ذلك قد جعل إلهه هواه.
1. One of the worst forms of disbelief is to have faith in one part of Allah’s scripture and to then reject other parts of it. Whoever does this has made their own desires into their god.
• عِظَم ما بلغه اليهود من العناد، واتباع الهوى، والتلاعب بما أنزل الله تعالى.
2. Some of the Israelites exchanged the Afterlife for worldly prestige, as a result of stubbornness, following their own desires, and manipulating what Allah had revealed to them.
• فضل الله تعالى ورحمته بخلقه، حيث تابع عليهم إرسال الرسل وإنزال الكتب لهدايتهم للرشاد.
3. It is from Allah’s blessings and mercy to His creation that He sent many messengers and scriptures to guide them.
• أن الله يعاقب المعرضين عن الهدى المعاندين لأوامره بالطبع على قلوبهم وطردهم من رحمته؛ فلا يهتدون إلى الحق، ولا يعملون به.
4. Allah repays those who turn away from guidance and stubbornly refuse to obey with a seal on their hearts, depriving them of His mercy. As a result, they will not be guided to the truth, and will not act according to it.
89. The Qur’ān came to them from Allah, agreeing with the universal true principles of the Torah and the Gospel. Before it was revealed, they used to say that they would be helped against the idolaters, who worship others alongside Allah, and would have success over them when a prophet was sent, since they would have faith in him and follow him. But when the Qur’ān and Muhammad (peace be upon him) came to them, according to the description they recognised and the truth they knew, they disbelieved him. Allah curses those who disbelieve Him and His Prophet.
90. How miserable is what they accepted in exchange for their portion of faith in Allah and His messengers. They disbelieved what Allah revealed, and unjustly and enviously rejected His prophets, because He gave prophethood and the Qur’ān to Muhammad (peace be upon him). For disbelieving in Muhammad (peace be upon him) and for distorting the Torah beforehand, they deserved anger upon anger from Allah. A humiliating torment on the Day of Judgement will meet those who disbelieved in the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him).
91. When this group of Jews was told to have faith in the truth and guidance that Allah revealed to His Prophet, they said that they believed in what had been revealed to their prophets, and denied anything besides this, and in what was revealed to Muhammad (peace be upon him), although the Qur’ān is the truth, confirming what Allah had already revealed to them. Had they truly believed in what had been revealed to them, they would have believed in the Qur’ān. So, ask them then, O Muhammad, why they killed the prophets of Allah before, if they really had faith in the truth they brought to them.
92. And also, your prophet Moses (peace be upon him), brought clear signs to you, proving that what he said was true. But after that you made the calf into a god and worshipped it, when Moses had gone to meet his Lord. You were wrongdoers for worshipping others alongside Allah, since only He is worthy of worship.
93. Remember when you made a binding promise with God to follow Moses, peace be upon him, and to accept what he brought from God. God raised the mountain over you so that you were awestruck, and told you to hold tightly and seriously to the scripture He had sent you, and to listen and follow what was revealed to you, if not God would make the mountain fall upon you, you said that you heard with your ears and rebelled in your actions. The worship of the calf took hold of their hearts because of their denial and ingratitude. O Muhammad, what their faith commands them to do is evil: disbelieving and turning away from what Allah instructs them to do – if they have any faith at all – because if they truly had faith they would not disbelieve and turn away from it.
94. Say, O Prophet: Jews, if Paradise in the Afterlife is just for you, and no other people will enter it, then wish for death, and ask for it, so that you reach this place quickly, and can rest from the burdens and worries of the life of this world, if you are truthful about what you claim.
95. They will never wish for death, because of what they have done in their lives: disbelieving in Allah, rejecting His prophets and distorting His scriptures. Allah knows the wrongdoers among them and other people: each person will be given what they have earned.
96. You will find, O Prophet, that the Jews are the most desirous for life, even if it is miserable and lowly. They are even greedier for it than the idolaters, who worship others alongside Allah, who do not believe in being brought back to life after death or in being held to account for what they have done. Despite being People of the Scripture, and believing in the resurrection and the reckoning, they would love to live a thousand years. Yet however long a life they might be given, it would not distance them from Allah’s punishment. Allah sees all that they do. Nothing is hidden from Him, and they will be given what they earn.
97. Say, O Muhammad, to those of the Jews who say that Gabriel is their enemy among the angels, that whoever is against Gabriel – who revealed the Qur’ān to your heart, with Allah’s permission, affirming the sacred scripture that came before it, such as the Torah and the Gospel, showing the way to what is good, and bringing the good news to the believers of the bliss Allah has prepared for them – then he is misguided.
98. Whoever stands against Allah, His angels and His prophets, and against His two angels Gabriel and Michael, then certainly Allah is a rival to the disbelievers from among you, and from other than you. Certain defeat faces whoever has Allah as his rival.
99. I have revealed to you, O Prophet, clear signs proving the truth of your prophethood and revelation. The only people who reject these signs, despite its clarity, are those who have abandoned Allah’s path.
100. Due to their corrupt state, a group of the Jews would always break any commitment that they made, including the duty to have faith in what the Torah revealed about the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him). Most of them do not really have faith in what Allah revealed, because faith leads to keeping to and honouring commitments and promises.
101. When Muhammad (peace be upon him) came to them as a prophet from Allah, and he fitted the Torah’s description of him, a group of them turned away from the scripture that showed this, throwing it behind their backs, unmindful of it, not benefitting from its truth or guidance, like fools.
102. When they left the path of Allah, they followed instead what the satans said: lying about the kingdom of the Prophet Solomon (peace be upon him) by claiming that it was established through black magic. Solomon did not disbelieve by practicing black magic, as the Jews claimed; but the satans were disbelievers when they taught people the black magic revealed to the two angels, Hārūt and Mārūt, in the city of Babel in Iraq. These two angels would only teach black magic to someone after explaining that they were simply a trial and a test for people, warning them not to be ungrateful to Allah by learning it. Those who learned black magic from them but did not listen to their advice would, through it, separate a man and his wife by sowing hatred between them. These sorcerers are not able to harm anyone except with Allah’s permission and by His will. They learn what harms them and does not benefit them. This group of Jews knew that whoever exchanges the scripture of Allah for black magic will have no portion in the Afterlife. What an evil thing they sold their souls for when they exchanged the revelation and sacred law of Allah for black magic! If they had known what would benefit them, they would not have done something so disgraceful and clearly misguided.
104. Allah directs the believers to choose their words carefully, telling them not to say ‘rā‘inā’, meaning ‘look after us’ or ‘shepherd us’, when addressing the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), because some of the Jews would mock what they said, twisting the words when addressing the Prophet (peace be upon him) themselves, corrupting its meaning to mean ‘foolish’ or ‘evil’. So, Allah told them not to use these words in order to prevent such mockery. He instructed them to say ‘unẓurnā’ instead, meaning ‘watch over us’, because the use of this word has no negative implications. Without doubt, the disbelievers in Allah will have a painful torment.
105. The disbelievers, whether they are from the People of the Scripture or from among the idolaters, do not like that Allah should send down any good thing, big or small, to you. Through His mercy Allah favours whom He wills of His servants with prophethood, revelation and faith. Allah’s bounty is vast. No one in creation gets any good except that it is from Him, and it is from His bounty that He sent His Prophet and revealed His scripture to us.
106. Allah makes it clear that whenever He removes the ruling of a verse or some words from the Qur’ān, so that people forget them, He replaces them with something more beneficial for the immediate moment or for later, or with what is similar. Such cases occur because of Allah’s wisdom and knowledge. You know, O Prophet, that Allah has power over all things. He does as He wills, and rules as He wishes.
107. You know, O Prophet, that everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah, and that He rules as He wills. He instructs His servants as He wills, and forbids them from doing what He wills, establishing the sacred law as He wishes, and abolishing what He wishes. Your only protector is Allah, Who will take care of you, and you have no other helper to protect you from harm. Allah is the protector and guardian of all, and has power over everything.
108. O believers, it is not right for you to question your Prophet, resisting and quarrelling with the revelation as the people of Moses questioned their prophet before, like when they said, ‘Show us Allah openly’ [ Sūrah Al-Nisā’: 153]. Whoever exchanges faith for disbelief has lost the balanced way, the right path.
109. Many of the People of the Scripture wish they could turn you back to worshipping idols as you did before you came to have faith because of envy, when it has become clear to them that what the Prophet came with is the truth from God. Forgive them what they do, and pardon them for their ignorance and for whatever is not good in them, until the command of God comes regarding them. God’s command came with its ruling, either Islam, or paying the Jizya or physical intervention. God has power over all things, and they do not affect Him in any way.
110. Establish the prayer with all its parts, both obligatory and recommended aspects, and give Zakat from their wealth to those who deserve it. Whatever good action they do in life before death will be a treasure for them: the reward of which they will find with their Lord on the Day of Judgement. Allah sees all that you do, and rewards everyone accordingly.
111. The Jews and the Christians each said that Paradise would be for them alone. These were just their vain wishes and imaginings. Tell them, O Prophet, in reply, to bring proof of what they were claiming if they were telling the truth.
112. All those who are sincere in repenting to Allah, doing good, serving Allah and following what the Prophet came with, will enter Paradise, no matter what group they come from. They will have their reward with their Lord. They will have no fear about what awaits them in the Afterlife, or feel sorrow about what passed them by in their lifetime. Regardless of someone’s original religious group – whether Jew, Christian, idolater other – successfully submitting to Allah is only now valid before Him by becoming Muslim, after the arrival of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
• أن الأمر كله لله، فيبدل ما يشاء من أحكامه وشرائعه، ويبقي ما يشاء منها، وكل ذلك بعلمه وحكمته.
1. Authority only belongs to Allah. He changes whatever He wills of His rulings and His sacred laws, and leaves those He wills as they are, in His wisdom and knowledge.
• حَسَدُ كثيرٍ من أهل الكتاب هذه الأمة، لما خصَّها الله من الإيمان واتباع الرسول، حتى تمنوا رجوعها إلى الكفر كما كانت.
2. Many of the People of the Scripture felt envy towards the Muslim nation because Allah favoured them with faith and with following the Messenger; and so they wished that they would return to disbelief, as they were before.
113. The Jews said that the Christians were not on the correct path and the Christians said the same about the Jews, although they both claimed to read the scriptures that Allah revealed to them, which contain the command to have faith in all the prophets without any distinction between them. In what they said, they are like those who know nothing, who worship others alongside Allah, rejecting all the prophets and the scriptures that were revealed to them. Allah will judge between those who disagree on the Day of Return. In His perfect and fair judgements, Allah tells His servants that there is no success without belief in all that He has revealed.
114. No one does greater wrong than those who stop the name of Allah being said in His Houses of worship, preventing the prayer and remembrance of Allah and the recitation of the Qur’ān in them, trying to destroy and ruin them, through tearing them down or stopping people from worshipping in them. Those who try to destroy them should not enter Allah’s places of worship, except fearfully and with trembling hearts, after their disbelief and having stopped people worshipping in them. They will have shame and humiliation in their life on earth at the hands of the believers, and in the Afterlife is a great torment for having stopped people from Allah’s Houses of worship.
115. Allah has authority over the entire world, and He instructs His servants as He wills. Wherever you turn, you will find Allah: He surrounds His creation. Whether He instructs you to face Jerusalem or the Kaaba, or you make a mistake in the direction of prayer or are not sure of it, then it is not an issue, because to Allah belongs every direction. Allah is vast in His blessings; He covers His creation with His mercy and ease. He knows their intentions and everything that they do.
116. The Jews, the Christians and the idolaters, who worship others alongside Allah, said that Allah had taken a son. He is far above and beyond such a thing, because He has no need of His creation, and no one has a son unless he is needy; and to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. All created beings are His servants, in submission to Him, glory be to Him! They are His servants and He deals with them as He wills.
117. Allah is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and all that is in them; and there is nothing in creation that is like Him. If He decrees and wills something, He only says to it ‘Be’ and it is as He willed it. Nothing can stop His command and His decree.
118. Those without knowledge from among the People of the Scripture and the idolaters asked, in their stubbornness against the truth, why Allah did not speak to them directly, or why a miracle was not sent for them to see. Disbelieving communities said similar things to their prophets in the past: their hearts are all similar, because all disbelievers are the same, even if they are from different times and places. Allah makes His signs clear to those who are certain of the truth when it appears to them, not doubting or resisting it.
119. The Prophet was sent with the religion of truth, in which there is no doubt: to bring the good news of Paradise to those who have faith, and to warn disbelievers about the fire of Hell. The Prophet only had to clearly deliver the message: Allah will not ask him about those people in the fire of Hell who did not believe in him.
120. Allah addresses and warns His Prophet, telling him that the Jews and the Christians will never be happy with him unless he leaves Islam and follows what they do; and that if he, or one of his followers, were to do such a thing, after the clear truth has come to them, they would not find protection or help from Allah. This makes clear the seriousness of leaving the truth and of following people of falsehood.
121. The Qur’ān mentions a group from the People of the Scripture who know the revealed texts they have been given and follow them properly. They find in these scriptures signs pointing to the truth of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him); and because of this they immediately have faith in him. Another group sticks to its disbelief, and for them is loss.
123. Protect yourself from the torment of the Day of Return by following the instructions of Allah and keeping away from what He has prohibited, because on that day no soul will be able to help another soul in any way; no ransom will be accepted for it, no matter how great; and no one pleading on its behalf will benefit it, no matter how high their position. On that day, a soul will have no helper other than Allah.
124. The Qur’ān tells us that Allah tested Abraham (peace be upon him) by instructing him to fulfil commandments and obligations. Abraham obeyed, fulfilling the orders completely. Allah told His prophet Abraham that He would make his manners and behaviour an example for people to follow. Abraham asked Allah to make also his descendants leaders who people would be guided by. Allah replied by saying that His promise to him of sacred leadership would not extend to the wrongdoers among his descendants.
125. The Qur’ān relates that Allah made the Kaaba a place for people to return to, as a means of connecting their hearts to Him. When they travel from it, they return to it. It has also been made a safe place for them where they will not be attacked. Allah tells people to make the stone which Abraham stood on while he was building the Kaaba into a place of prayer. Allah instructed Abraham and his son Ishmael to purify the sanctuary from filth and idols for those who wish to worship in it, go around the Kaaba, stay there for worship, praying and so on.
126. Remember, O Prophet, when Abraham prayed to his Lord, asking Him to make Makkah a safe place, where no one would be faced with evil; and to provide the people who live there with all types of crops, and a special provision for those who have faith in Allah. Allah said that He would give some enjoyment to the disbelievers by giving them provision in this life; but in the next life they will be forced into the torment of the fire of Hell – a miserable place to which they return on the Day of Judgement.
127. Remember, O Prophet, when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the Kaaba. As they did so, they asked with humility for Allah to accept all they did, including building the Kaaba. Allah hears what we say and knows our intentions and everything that we do.
128. They asked Allah to make them surrender in devotion to His command, humble towards Him, not worshipping anyone besides Him; and to make their children and their descendants a nation who also surrendered in devotion to Him. They also asked Allah to teach them how to worship Him, to forgive them for their faults and shortcomings in doing what He instructed them. He turns to those who ask for forgiveness and is compassionate towards His creation.
129. They asked Allah to send a messenger to their offspring from the descendants of Ishmael, to recite the revealed verses of Allah to them and teach them the Qur’ān and the Sunnah, and to purify them from worshipping others alongside Allah and from all evil. He is the Mighty in His essence, and the Wise in what He does and in His decrees.
130. No one turns away from the religion of Abraham, peace be upon him, to other ways of life except those who do not know their own worth, and are content with humiliation. God chose him as a messenger in this world and as a friend of God, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the righteous people who fulfilled what God required them to do, and so reached the highest levels.
131. Allah chose Abraham because of his swiftness in surrendering, telling him to be faithful and devoted to Him in worship and to humbly do as He instructed. Abraham replied to his Lord saying that he had surrendered in devotion to Him, Who created His servants, providing for them and taking care of their affairs.
132. Abraham advised his sons to also say, ‘I have surrendered to the Lord of people’; and Jacob told his sons to do the same. They told their sons that Allah had chosen for them the religion of surrendering in devotion, Islam, and to hold on to it tightly until they died, surrendering sincerely to Allah on the inside and the outside.
133. Were you present at the time of Jacob’s death, when he asked his sons what they would worship after he had died? They replied to him, saying that they would worship Allah, the Lord of his forefathers – Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac – namely, the One Allah without partners; and they said that they surrendered in devotion to Him alone and were bound to Him.
134. That nation has passed away like other communities. They gained whatever they did in their lives, earning either good or evil; and you will gain what you have earned. You will not be asked about what they did, and they will not be asked about what you do. No one is held to account for the disobedience of another, but everyone is rewarded according to their own actions. You should not be distracted from paying attention to your own behaviour by looking at what those before you did. Nothing will benefit anyone except his own good actions.
• المؤمن المتقي لا يغتر بأعماله الصالحة، بل يخاف أن ترد عليه، ولا تقبل منه، ولهذا يُكْثِرُ سؤالَ الله قَبولها.
1. The mindful believer is not dazzled by his own good actions, but worries that they might not be accepted from him by Allah. For this reason, the believer should often ask Allah to accept his good actions.
• بركة دعوة أبي الأنبياء إبراهيم عليه السلام، حيث أجاب الله دعاءه وجعل خاتم أنبيائه وأفضل رسله من أهل مكة.
2. The blessing of the prayer of the father of the prophets, Abraham (peace be upon him), meant that Allah accepted his prayer, and made the seal of His prophets (Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him) from the people of Makkah.
• دين إبراهيم عليه السلام هو الملة الحنيفية الموافقة للفطرة، لا يرغب عنها ولا يزهد فيها إلا الجاهل المخالف لفطرته.
3. The verses show the correctness of asking Allah to accept our prayers through His divine names and attributes, and not through the innovation of intermediaries, such as by the right or position of someone else.
• مشروعية الوصية للذرية باتباع الهدى، وأخذ العهد عليهم بالتمسك بالحق والثبات عليه.
4. The religion of Abraham is the true faith, which is the natural way of life for us. Only a fool who goes against his own nature rejects it.
135. The Jews told the Muslims that they would have to be Jews if they were to be rightly guided; and the Christians told them that they would have to be Christians if they were to be rightly-guided. Tell them, O Prophet, in answer, that you follow the religion of Abraham, who turned away from other false ways of life to the way of truth. He did not worship others next to Allah, as some do.
136. Tell the Jews and Christians who make these baseless claims that you have faith in Allah and the Qur’ān which He revealed to you, and in what He revealed to Abraham and his sons Ishmael and Isaac, and to Jacob, and in what He revealed to the prophets from the descendants of Jacob. Say that you have faith in the Torah which Allah gave to Moses, and the Gospel which He gave to Jesus, and in all the scriptures that He gave to every one of the prophets, with no distinction between them, having faith in all of them, not only having faith in some and rejecting others. Tell them that you humbly surrender to Him alone.
137. If the Jews and the Christians, and other disbelievers, have faith in the same way that you do, then they have been guided to the right way of life which Allah is satisfied with. Yet if they turn away from faith because they reject all the prophets or some of them, then they are in disagreement and are against you. Do not be sad, O Prophet, because Allah will protect you from their harm and evil, and give you victory over them. Allah hears all that they say, and knows all their intentions and actions.
138. Hold tightly to the religion of Allah which is the natural way of life for you, on the inside and outside. There is no better way of life than the path of Allah, which agrees with our nature, benefiting us in every way and protecting us from evil and corruption. Say that you worship Allah alone and do not worship anything apart from Him.
139. If the People of the Scripture argue with you, saying they have more right to Allah and His religion than you do because their way of life is older and their scriptures came before yours, then it will not benefit them. Allah is the Lord of everyone, and He is not for them alone. Tell them, O Prophet, that you have your actions which they will not be asked about; and they have their actions which you will not be asked about. Everyone will be rewarded according to what they have done. Tell them that you are sincere to Allah in your worship and in doing as He instructs you, and that you do not worship anything apart from Him.
140. Or do you say, O People of the Scripture, that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the prophets from Jacob’s descendants were on the path of the Jews or Christians? Ask, O Prophet, in reply to them, whether they are more knowledgeable or is Allah. If they claim that they were Jews or Christians, then what they say is false, because they were sent and died before the Torah and the Gospel were revealed. This shows that what they say is a lie against Allah and His Prophet, and that they hid the truth of what was revealed to them. No one does greater wrong than someone who hides firm evidence that they have from Allah, as some of the People of the Scripture did. Allah is not unaware of what you do, and you will be rewarded accordingly.
141. That nation passed away before you, and earned what they earned from what they did. They have earned for themselves from their own actions; and you have earned from your own actions. You will not be asked about what they did, and they will not be asked about what you do. No one is held accountable for the disobedience of someone else, and no one benefits from what someone else does. Each person will receive his reward, according to what they themselves do.
142. The foolish and weak-minded among the Jews, and those like them from among the hypocrites, will ask what turned the Muslims away from the prayer direction of Jerusalem, which was their direction of prayer before. Tell them, O Prophet, in reply, that to Allah belongs the east and the west and every direction, and He directs whomever He wills of His servants to whatever direction He wills. He guides whom He wills of His servants to the right path which is free of distortions and misguidance.
143. Just as I made a direction of prayer for you, I have chosen you to be a good, just and balanced nation from among all the communities: in your beliefs and your ways of worship and in your transactions, so that you will be witnesses for the prophets of Allah on the Day of Judgement, confirming that they delivered the messages Allah instructed them to deliver to their people; and so that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) will also witness that he delivered his message to you. Allah changed the direction of prayer that you used to face (Jerusalem) to demonstrate who was content with Allah’s decree, willingly doing as He instructed and following the Messenger; and to also demonstrate who turned away from his religion, following his own desires and not obeying Allah’s sacred law. The first change of prayer direction was difficult, except for those who Allah granted faith to and who were certain that whatever He decrees for His servants has far reaching wisdom and underlying reasons behind it. Allah will not make you lose your faith in Him, or your good actions, including the prayers you prayed before the change of prayer direction. Allah is kind and compassionate with people, not overburdening them, and they will not lose the reward for their actions.
144. God saw you, O Prophet, turning your face and gazing towards the heavens, anticipating revelation about changing the direction of prayer to the place you loved. God will turn you to a prayer direction which you will be pleased with, to the Sacred House of God, instead of the prayer direction you now face, so turn your face to the Sacred House of God in Makkah, and wherever you are, O believers, turn towards it to perform your prayers. Those who have been given the Scripture, the Jews and the Christians, know well that the change of prayer direction is the truth revealed from their Creator Who arranges and manages their lives, as it is clear in their Scripture. God is not unaware of what those who turn away from the truth do. He, glory be to Him, is aware of everything, and will reward them according to their actions.
145. By God! If you provided the Jews and Christians who have been given the Scripture with every sign and proof that the change of prayer direction was the truth, they would not face your prayer direction, stubborn against what you say and too proud to follow the truth. You will not face their prayer direction after God has directed you away from it, and they will not face the prayer directions of one another, because each group calls the other disbelievers, and because they follow their desires in the matter of the prayer direction and in other sacred laws and rulings, even after the true knowledge which was revealed to you and about which there is no doubt. If you were to leave guidance, and follow their desires, you would certainly be of the wrongdoers. Here God addresses the Prophet(s) directly to show how wrong it would be to follow them. Of course, God has protected the prophet himself from ever doing so, and this as a warning for his followers after him.
146. The scholars of the Jews and the Christians to whom Allah gave the scripture recognise Muhammad (peace be upon him) as completely as they recognise their own children and distinguish them from others. Nevertheless, a group of them hide the truth that has come to them, out of envy, fully aware that it is the truth.
148. Every nation has a direction they turn to, whether physically or spiritually. For this reason, there is a difference between them in their directions of prayer and in their sacred laws. There is nothing wrong with them facing different directions if it is by Allah’s command and law, so try to outdo each other, O believers, in doing the good actions that you have been instructed to do. Allah will bring you together from wherever you may be on the Day of Judgement, to reward you according to what you have done. Allah has power over all things. It is not difficult for Him to bring you all together and reward you.
149. Wherever you come from and wherever you are, you, O Prophet, and your followers are to face towards the Sacred Mosque (the Kaaba in Makkah) when you want to pray. It is the truth that has been revealed to you from your Lord. Allah is not unaware of what you do. Rather, He is aware of all that you do, and you will be rewarded accordingly.
150. Wherever you come from, O Prophet, when you want to pray, turn towards the direction of the Sacred Mosque; and wherever you may be, O believers, turn your face towards it if you want to pray, so that the people will have no argument against you, except those of them who are wrongdoers. They will remain in their stubbornness, arguing against you with the weakest of arguments. Do not fear them, but fear your Lord alone, following His instructions and keeping away from what He has prohibited. Allah instructed you to face the Kaaba to perfect His blessings upon you, distinguishing you from all other communities and guiding you to the noblest direction of prayer.
151. Allah blessed you in another way: sending a messenger to you from among you, who recites His verses, purifying you by directing you to virtue and goodness and forbidding you from evil and wrong, teaching you the Qur’ān and the Sunnah, and teaching you worldly and sacred knowledge which you did not know.
152. So, remember Allah with your hearts and your whole beings, and He will remember you with approval and protection, for you are rewarded according to what you do. Also, be grateful to Allah for the blessings He has given you, and do not be ungrateful by denying them or using them in prohibited ways.
153. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, ask for help from Allah in everything, through the beauty of patience and by establishing the prayer in the way Allah has instructed. Allah is truly with those who are patient, giving them success and helping them.
154. Do not say, O believers, about those who are killed whilst striving in Allah’s path that they are dead just as others are; rather, they are alive with their Lord, but you do not realise that they are living, because the way in which they are alive can only be understood through revelation from Allah.
155. Allah will test people with different types of hardships: some with fear of those who are against them; hunger because of lack of food; lack of money because of losing it or difficulty gaining it; loss of lives due to death from diseases and tragedies that kill people, or being martyred for the sake of Allah; and a lack of resources from the earth. Give good news, O Prophet, to those who are patient in the face of these hardships, of what will make them happy in this world and in the Afterlife.
156. The patient are those who, when they are struck by one of these hardships, say, in acceptance, that all power belongs to Allah, He deals with us as He wills, and we will return to Him on the Day of Judgement, and it is He Who created us and showers us with many blessings; so, to Him is our return and our end.
158. The two mountains known as Ṣafā and Marwah, near to the Kaaba, are landmarks of the clear sacred law. Whoever goes to the Kaaba to perform the acts of Hajj or Umrah, there is no fault in them walking between the two mountains. By clarifying that there was no fault in this action, Allah was comforting those Muslims who avoided walking between the mountains because they feared it was an unacceptable action from the time of ignorance before Islam; but Allah made it clear that the walking between the mountains was an acceptable act of Hajj. Whoever sincerely does what is recommended of voluntary sacred acts, Allah acknowledges them and rewards them. He is aware of who does good and is worthy of being rewarded.
159. Those Jews and Christians who hide the clear proofs which Allah revealed showing the truth of the Prophet and what he brought, after Allah had made it clear to the people in their scriptures, Allah removes them from His mercy; and all the angels, the prophets and people call for them to be removed from His mercy.
160. The exception is those who repent to Allah, asking for forgiveness, and regretting having hidden these clear signs, correcting what they do outwardly and inwardly, and making clear the truth and guidance which they had hidden. Allah accepts their repentance to Him. He turns to those who turn to Him, asking for forgiveness and regretting what they have done, and He forgives and is compassionate with them.
161. Those who disbelieve and die in disbelief, not having repented, they are condemned by Allah by being removed from His mercy; and the angels and people all call for them to be removed and excluded from Allah’s mercy.
163. O people, your Allah is the true Allah, the One, unique in His essence and attributes. There is no other true god, and He is the Merciful and His mercy is vast. He is Compassionate with His creation, surrounding them with many blessings.
164. The following are clear signs of the Oneness of Allah, glory be to Him, for those who understand the evidence and proof: the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the wonders in them; the succession of night and day; the passing of life and death; happiness and sorrow; wealth and poverty; ships that sail through the waters of the sea, carrying food, clothing, trade and other things that people need and which benefit them; water that Allah sends down, bringing the earth to life with the agriculture and pasture that grows in it, and the living creatures He spreads out in it; the changing of the winds from one direction to another; and the clouds, controlled between the sky and the earth.
165. Even with these clear signs, there are people who take others besides Allah as their gods, considering them equal to Him, and loving them as they love Allah. Those who have real faith love Allah more than those others love their gods: they do not worship anyone besides Him; and they love Him in hardship and in ease, while those others only love their gods when things are going well – when things go badly, they call on Allah alone. If the wrongdoers could see with their own eyes the punishment that waits in the Afterlife for those who worship others with Allah and commit sins, then they would know that all power belongs to Allah alone and that He is firm in punishing those who stubbornly rebel. If they saw this, then they would not worship anyone with Allah.
166. Then the leaders who were followed in disbelief will reject the weak people who followed them because of seeing the terrors and hardships of the Day of Judgement; so, all ties and means of escape will be cut off from them.
167. The weak and those who followed will say, ‘If only we could go back to the earth, we would reject our leaders as they reject us’. Allah shows them the severe punishment in the Afterlife and the consequence of following their leaders in falsehood: regrets and sorrow, and they will never leave the fire of Hell.
168. O people, eat from the meat, vegetables and fruits of the earth which are lawful and good, and not harmful. Do not follow the actions of Satan and his evil whisperings: he is a clear enemy who is hostile to you – anyone with sense would not follow an enemy who wants to harm and mislead them.
169. Satan only commands harmful, evil actions and disobedience that will bring hardship, as well as for you to say things about faith in Allah and His sacred laws that have not been given to you by Allah or His Prophet.
170. If these disbelievers are told to follow the guidance and light which Allah revealed, they say, resisting stubbornly, that they will follow the beliefs and customs that their fathers followed. Do they follow their fathers even though they understood nothing of guidance or the light, and were not guided to the truth that Allah accepts?
171. The example of those who disbelieve and stubbornly follow the path of their fathers is like the example of the shepherd who shouts, calling to his animals that hear his voice, but do not understand what he says. They are deaf to hearing the truth so that it will benefit them, dumb as they are unable to speak about the truth, and blind to seeing it, and because of this they do not understand the guidance which you call them to.
172. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, consume the good things that Allah has provided and allowed for you; and be thankful to Allah, outwardly and inwardly, for the overwhelming blessings He has given you. Part of being thankful to Him is acting with complete devotion to Him and not going against Him, if you truly worship Him alone, and do not worship anything besides Him.
173. Allah has only forbidden you from consuming that which died without being sacrificed according to the sacred law and having its blood flow, the meat of pigs and what has had other than Allah’s name mentioned over it when it was sacrificed. Yet if someone is forced to eat something of these forbidden types, and does not sin by eating it when they are not in need, nor do they go beyond the limit of what is necessary, then they have done no wrong and will receive no punishment. Allah is Forgiving and Compassionate to whomever repents to Him; and it is from His mercy that He overlooks the eating of forbidden things when it is necessary.
174. Those who hide what Allah revealed in the scriptures and the signs of the truth and prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) – as the Jews and Christians did, getting something small in return for what they hide, such as leadership, status or money – they only fill their stomachs with that which will cause them to suffer in the fire of Hell. Then on the Day of Judgement, Allah will not speak to them with words that make them joyful; but they will only hear that which makes them sad: they will not be praised, and they will have a painful punishment.
175. Those who hide knowledge exchange guidance for misguidance, as they hid the truth, and exchange the forgiveness of Allah for His punishment. How determined they are to do things that will lead them into the fire of Hell, as if they do not realize what suffering it contains!
176. That punishment is what they get for hiding knowledge and guidance, because Allah revealed the sacred scriptures in truth, which must be made clear and not hidden. Also, those who disagree with the sacred scripture, believing some of it and hiding some of it, have taken a position that is far from the truth.
177. Doing good that pleases Allah does not just mean turning towards the east or the west or disputing about that. Rather, it is having faith in Allah as the only God, the Day of Judgement, all of the angels, all of the revealed scriptures and all of the prophets, without distinguishing between them; charitable spending, despite loving and valuing wealth, to relatives, orphans, the poor, the stranger who is cut off from his family and homeland because of a journey, and whoever has a need that makes it necessary for them to ask people for help; giving money to free slaves from captivity; establishing the prayer as Allah instructed; giving Zakat; being true to promises; and patience in poverty, hardship, illness and in times of conflict without fleeing. Such people are those who are true to Allah in their faith and in what they do. They are the Mindful who follow what Allah has instructed them to do, and who stay away from what Allah has prohibited.
178. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, it is decreed for you that in cases where someone deliberately attacks and kills someone, the punishment for the murderer should be the same as their crime: the freeman killed for the freeman; the slave for the slave; and the female for the female. If the person killed had forgiven before his death, or his guardian has forgiven in return for the payment of blood money (a sum of money paid by the murderer in return for being pardoned), then the person who forgives should ask for the sum of money fairly, and not follow that up with insult or injury, and the murderer should pay the sum of money in a good way, without hesitation or delay. In allowing this forgiveness and the payment of the blood money your Lord makes things easier for you, and this is a mercy for the Muslim nation. Whoever attacks the murderer after his pardon and the acceptance of the blood money will receive a painful punishment from Allah.
179. In the law of equivalent punishment decreed by Allah there is life for you, because it spares your blood, stopping further attacks between you. Those with sense understand this: who are mindful of Allah, keeping to His sacred law and doing as He instructs.
180. It has been decreed for you that if one of you is about to die, and they are leaving a large amount of wealth behind, then they should make a will for their parents and close relatives, according to the sacred laws, not exceeding one third of the wealth (the rest of the wealth being distributed according to the laws of inheritance). Making this will is a firm duty on those who are mindful of Allah. This ruling was revealed before the verses about inheritance. When the verses about inheritance were revealed it was made clear who should inherit from the person who has died and how much they should inherit.
181. Whoever then changes the will, adding to it or taking away from it or stopping something when they know what the will contains, the sin of it will be upon those who changed it, and the person who wrote the will is not held responsible for what they did. Allah hears all that His creation say, and knows all that they do; and He knows every detail of the situations they are in.
182. Whoever knows that there is an error in judgement from the person who made the will, or that there is some injustice in it, and advises the person and rectifies the wrong, and reconciles between those who are in disagreement about it, then there is no blame on them; rather they are rewarded for putting things right. Allah is Forgiving towards whomever of His servants repents to Him, and is Compassionate with them.
183. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Prophet, Allah has ordered you to fast, as He ordered those before you, so that you may become mindful of Allah, protecting yourself from His punishment by doing good actions – fasting being one of the best of these.
184. You are ordered to fast for a small number of days in the year. Yet whoever of you is ill, with an illness that makes fasting difficult, or travelling, then they do not need to fast; but they can make up for these days by fasting the same number of other days. Those who are able to fast, but do not, should compensate by feeding a poor person for every day they did not fast. Fasting is better for you than not fasting and feeding a poor person instead, if you only knew what goodness there is in fasting. This was the first of Allah’s laws about fasting: whoever wanted to fast did so; and whoever did not want to fast was permitted not to, and fed a poor person instead. Afterwards Allah made fasting a duty for every able person who has reached puberty.
185. The Qur’ān was first revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) on the Night of Decree in the month of Ramadan. Allah revealed it as a guidance for people, with clear proofs of its guidance, and the criterion between the truth and falsehood. Whoever reaches the month of Ramadan, and is well and healthy, is required to fast; and whoever is ill, or for whom fasting is difficult, or is travelling, then they may break their fast. If they do not fast then they must perform make-up fasts for the days they missed at another time. Allah intends ease, and not hardship, in what He decrees for you; and wants you to complete the right number of days and to glorify Him upon the completion of Ramadan, on the day of Eid, as He helped you and made it possible for you to fast, so that you thank Allah for guiding you to this religion which He has approved for you.
186. If they ask you, O Prophet, about how close Allah is and about His answering of prayers, Allah is close to them and knows everything about them. He hears their prayer, and they do not need intermediaries or to raise their voices. Allah responds to the call of whoever calls Him sincerely, praying to Him; so, let them be devoted to Him and His sacred law, firm in their faith, as that is the best route to Allah’s response – perhaps in that way they might be rightly guided in worldly and sacred matters.
• فَضَّلَ الله شهر رمضان بجعله شهر الصوم وبإنزال القرآن فيه، فهو شهر القرآن؛ ولهذا كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يتدارس القرآن مع جبريل في رمضان، ويجتهد فيه ما لا يجتهد في غيره.
1. Allah made fasting obligatory on Muslims and on people who came before them, because it brings about mindfulness of Allah, and helps sustain it.
• شريعة الإسلام قامت في أصولها وفروعها على التيسير ورفع الحرج، فما جعل الله علينا في الدين من حرج.
2. Allah distinguished the month of Ramadan by revealing the Qur’ān in it. It is the month of the Qur’ān, which is why the Prophet (peace be upon him) would study it with Gabriel during Ramadan.
• قُرْب الله تعالى من عباده، وإحاطته بهم، وعلمه التام بأحوالهم؛ ولهذا فهو يسمع دعاءهم ويجيب سؤالهم.
3. The sacred law of Islam is based, in its principles and practice, on making things easy and removing difficulty. Allah has not, therefore, made things difficult for us in following this way of life.
187. At first it was not allowed for a man, if he had gone to sleep on the night of the fast and then woke up before dawn, to eat or drink, or approach his wife. Allah replaced this ruling, allowing you, O believers, to have relations with your wives during the nights of fasting. They are a protection for you, keeping you pure, and you are a cover for them, keeping them pure. You both need each other. Allah knew that you were betraying yourselves by doing what you were not allowed to, so He had mercy on you, turning to you when you asked for forgiveness, and made things easier for you. So, have relations with them, and seek the children Allah has decreed you, and eat and drink during the whole of the night, until the break of true dawn is clear to you. Then complete your fast, not consuming anything from the break of dawn until sunset. But do not have relations with your wives when you are in spiritual retreat in the mosques, because that invalidates the retreat. These laws are the limits of Allah: between what is allowed and what is forbidden– so do not go near them. Whoever goes near the limits of Allah is close to falling into what is prohibited. By clearly setting out such laws, Allah makes His signs obvious to people so that they may be mindful of Him, and do what He instructs and leave what He has prohibited.
188. Do not take each other’s wealth unjustly: robbing it or taking it by force or by cheating, and then making it a legal dispute in order to obtain other’s wealth wrongfully, when you know that Allah has prohibited that. Committing a sin knowingly is the worst of things and has the greatest of punishments.
189. They ask you, O Messenger, about the formation of the new moons and their changing states. Tell them in reply about the wisdom behind them: that they measure time for people, so that they know when to do their acts of worship, such as the months of Hajj and fasting, and the completion of the year for Zakat; they also fix the time frames of transactions, such as the deadlines for paying blood money or debts. It is not righteousness or goodness that you come to houses from the rear wearing your iḥrām for Hajj or Umrah, as they used to claim during the time of ignorance before Islam. Rather, true righteousness is the righteousness of whoever is mindful, outwardly and inwardly. So, enter houses from their correct doors, because it is easier for you and less troublesome. Allah does not overburden you with difficulty, so protect yourself from the punishment of Allah by doing good, in order that you may be successful in achieving what you wish for, and in escaping from what you fear.
190. Fight in order to raise the word of Allah, against those of the disbelievers who fight you to turn you away from the religion of Allah; but do not overstep the limits of Allah by killing children, women, the elderly, or by mutilating the dead and so on. Allah does not love those who overstep the limits He has established and made sacred.
191. And kill them where you come across them, and make them leave the place they made you leave - which is Makkah. And oppression that stops those who believe from worshipping, making them return to disbelief and ungratefulness is worse than killing. And do not fight with them in the Sacred Mosque, out of respect for it, unless they start fighting you there. If they start fighting in the Sacred Mosque, then kill them. And fighting them if they attack in the Sacred mosque is the reward of those who deny the truth.
192. If these aggressive disbelievers stop fighting you and stop disbelieving, then stop fighting them. Allah Forgiving to whomever repents to Him with regret, asking for forgiveness, and does not hold them to account for the disobedience they did before. He is Compassionate with them and not quick to punish.
193. Fight the disbelievers until they do not prevent people from Allah’s path and there is no disbelief, and until the dominant way of life is the path of Allah. But if they stop their disbelief and stop preventing others from the path of Allah, then stop fighting them. There is to be no aggression except against those who oppress, through disbelief and by preventing people from the path of Allah.
194. The sacred month in which Allah allowed you to enter the Sacred Mosque and perform Umrah in the seventh year after the Migration is a compensation for the sacred month when you were stopped by the idolaters from entering the Sacred Mosque in the sixth year after the Migration. The law of equality applies when the limits are overstepped in regards to sacred things, such as the sacred land, the sacred month and being in an ordered state of purity (iḥrām) for pilgrimage to the Sacred Mosque. When someone wrongs you in any of these, treat them as they treated you, but do not go beyond what they have done: Allah does not love those who overstep His limits. Be mindful of Allah by not going beyond what He has given you permission to do. Know that Allah is with those who are mindful of Him, giving them success and supporting them.
195. Spend your wealth in obedience to Allah, in striving for His sake, and do not throw yourselves into destruction, by leaving the struggle and spending for His sake, or by throwing yourselves into something that will cause your destruction. Behave with excellence and kindness in your worship, transactions and behaviour. Allah loves those who always do good: giving them a greater reward and leading them to true guidance.
196. Perform Hajj and Umrah in a complete way, seeking only Allah’s pleasure. If you are prevented from completing them by illness or an enemy, then you should sacrifice what is easily available of sacrificial animals, such as camels, cows or sheep, before you take off your Iḥrām, and do not shave your heads or cut your hair until the sacrificial animals have reached their place. If you are prevented from entering the Sacred Sanctuary, then perform the sacrifice wherever you have stopped; yet if you can enter it, then do it on the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah) or at least within the days of tashrīq (11, 12 and 13 of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah). Whoever among you is ill or has some problem with his hair or his head, like lice or something similar, whoever shaved his head for that reason, then that is not a problem; but they should instead fast for three days, or feed six poor people from the area of the Sanctuary, or sacrifice a sheep to be distributed among the poor of the Sanctuary. If you are living in times of peace, then whoever takes the opportunity to perform Umrah in the months of Hajj, enjoying in between those things that are not allowed when performing the pilgrimages, they should sacrifice whatever is easily available: a sheep, or a seventh of a camel or cow. If they are unable to make a sacrifice, then they must fast for three days during the days of Hajj to make up for it, and seven more days when they return home, making ten days all together. This practice of having a break between Umrah and Hajj and sacrificing an animal or fasting for those unable to make a sacrifice is only for people who do not live within or close to the Sanctuary of the Sacred Mosque. As for those who live within the Sanctuary or close to it, they do not do this, because they have no need to due to their constant being there and enjoying being able to make Umrah or Tawaf freely any other time of the year. Be mindful of Allah by following what He makes sacred law, and by respecting His limits, and know that Allah is firm in punishing those who go against what He instructs.
197. The time of the Hajj is the well-known months, starting with the month of Shawwāl and ending on the 10th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah. Sexual relations and things that lead to it are prohibited for any person who decides to perform the Hajj in these months once he enters the state of iḥrām. In addition, the prohibition of going against Allah by committing sins becomes even more emphasised at this time due to the sacredness of the time and place. The pilgrim may not quarrel with anyone: causing them to become angry and leading to a fight. If you do any good, Allah knows and will reward you for it. To perform the Hajj, take an adequate amount of food and drink, but remember that the best provision is being always mindful of Allah. O people of sound mind, fear Allah by fulfilling His instructions and avoiding His prohibitions.
198. There is no sin in seeking lawful provision by trading or other ways during the Hajj. When you leave Arafat after having spent the day there on the 9th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah, and when you head towards Muzdalifah on the night before the 10th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah, remember Allah by glorifying and praising Him and by praying to Him at the sacred place in Muzdalifah. Remember that Allah has guided you to the teachings of His path, and the acts of Hajj to His House: you were unaware of the sacred laws before this.
199. Then leave Arafat just as the Prophet Abraham used to do, and do not leave out stopping at Arafat as the people of ignorance used to do. Seek forgiveness from Allah for any defects in the performance of the Hajj, for Allah is Forgiving towards those of His servants who repent and He is Merciful towards them.
200. When you have completed the acts of Hajj, remember and praise Him much, just as you boast about and praise your forefathers – or even more than that because every favour that you enjoy comes from Him. People are different: some are disbelieving idolaters who only believe in this worldly life. Such people will only ask Allah for the blessing of this world and its beauty in the form of health, wealth and children, and will not receive anything of what Allah has prepared for His faithful servants in the Afterlife. This is because of their desire for this world and their neglect of the Afterlife.
201. Yet there is another group of people who have faith in Allah and the Afterlife who ask their Lord for blessing in this world and the ability to do good, just as they ask Him for entry into Paradise and safety from the punishment of the fire of Hell.
202. Those that pray for the good of this world and the Afterlife will receive their share of the great reward for their good actions in the world. Allah is swift in taking account of actions: He will reward those that do good and take those that do evil to task.
203. Remember Allah by saying, ‘Allāhu Akbar’ (Allah is greatest!), and, ‘Lā ilāhah illā Allāh’ (There is no god except Allah), on the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah. If anyone is in a hurry, he may leave Minā after pelting stones on the 12th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah – and there will be no sin as Allah has granted that permission. It is also acceptable if someone stays to pelt stones on the 13th of Dhū Al-Ḥijjah – in fact, this is better and was the action of the Prophet (peace be upon him). All of this applies to those that are mindful of Allah during their Hajj and carry it out in accordance with Allah’s instruction. Be mindful of Allah by fulfilling His instructions and avoiding His prohibitions. Be sure that you will return to Him alone and He will recompense you for your actions.
204. There is a type of person who is actually a Hypocrite, but his speech with respect to the life of this world impresses you, O Prophet, and you consider him to be honest and sincere because of his wonderful words. However, his only goal in speaking words of faith is to protect his personal and financial interests. He calls Allah to witness that he has faith and goodness in his heart whilst he is in fact lying: he bears great hostility and hatred for the Muslims.
205. When this Hypocrite leaves you, he works hard to cause corruption by committing sins, and he destroys crops and kills animals. Allah does not love corruption in the land and He does not love those that cause corruption.
206. When this person who causes corruption is advised to be mindful of Allah by respecting His limits and avoiding His prohibitions, his pride and arrogance prevents him from repenting, and he continues to sin. The only appropriate reward for him is entry into Hell. What a terrible place to reside in for its inhabitants!
207. There is another type of person who is a believer, who will sell and give up his soul to follow his Lord and to strive in His path seeking His pleasure. Allah’s mercy for His servants is vast and He is Kind to them.
208. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, enter Islam completely and do not leave out any part of it like how the People of the Scripture believed in some parts of the book and disbelieved other parts. Do not follow the ways of Satan, because he has made it clear that he is your enemy.
209. If you slip up or go astray after clear proofs have come to you, then know that Allah is Mighty in His ability and power, Wise in His planning and establishing of sacred laws. So, fear and glorify Him.
210. These people who follow the path of Satan, instead of the path of truth, are waiting only for Allah to come to them, as befits His majesty, on the Day of Resurrection in the shadows of clouds to judge them and for the angels to come and surround them from all sides. At that time, Allah will judge them once and for all. To Allah alone shall all affairs relating to creation return.
211. O Prophet, ask the Jews about how many clear signs proving the truthfulness of the messengers were given to them by Allah. Despite this they disbelieved and turned away from them. If anyone changes the favour of Allah into disbelief and denial after being aware of it and after it has become obvious, then Allah is strong in punishing the disbelievers and the deniers.