تنظيم المجتمع المسلم وبناء علاقاته، وحفظ الحقوق، والحث على الجهاد، وإبطال دعوى قتل المسيح.
This Sūrah outlines the organisation of Muslim society: protecting the rights of society and the distribution of wealth, removing the negative traces of the time of ignorance before Islam and focusing on the rights of women and of those who are weak.
1. O people, be mindful of your Lord, for it is He Who created you from a single soul: your father Adam; and from Adam He created his wife Eve, your mother. From the two of them, He spread many people, both male and female, all over the earth. Be mindful of Allah when requesting others by Him, such as: ‘I ask you, by Allah, to do such-and-such. Also, be mindful of breaking relations with your blood ties. Allah watches over you and nothing you do escapes Him; rather, He takes it into account and repays you accordingly.
2. Guardians, give orphans (whose fathers have died and who have not yet reached maturity) their wealth in full when they come of age and have sound judgement. Do not exchange what is permitted for what is prohibited: taking what is good and valuable from the property of the orphans and replacing it with something bad and of little worth from your own property. Also, do not take the property of the orphans and combine it with your own wealth – that is a great crime before Allah.
3. If you fear that you will not be just in marrying the female orphans under your guardianship – fearing that you will not give them an appropriate dowry or will not treat them well – then do not marry them, and marry other women you choose. You may marry two, three or four; but if you fear that you will be unjust between them, then marry just one, or suffice with what you possess of slave women, for their rights are not the same as the rights of wives. This is the best way to avoid being unjust or biased.
5. Guardians, do not give property to those who do not know how to manage it well. Allah made this property a way to serve the interests of people and for them to live on it, and such people are not able to manage their wealth well. Provide for them, clothe them and speak to them in a good way. Make a firm commitment to give them their property if they get sound judgement and become able to manage it well.
6. Guardians, test the orphans when they are near to reaching maturity, by giving them a part of their wealth to see how they manage it. If they manage it well, and show you their sound judgement, hand over their property in full. Do not use up their wealth, overstepping the limits which Allah has approved for you: use their wealth only when necessary. Do not rush to use it up for fear that they will take it when they reach maturity. Whoever is wealthy should not use up the property of the orphan; and whoever is poor and has no wealth should only use what is necessary. When you hand over their property to them, upon their reaching maturity and showing sound judgement, have it witnessed; to protect rights and to prevent causes of disagreement. Allah is sufficient as a witness for that, and takes account of all that people do.
• الأصل الذي يرجع إليه البشر واحد، فالواجب عليهم أن يتقوا ربهم الذي خلقهم، وأن يرحم بعضهم بعضًا.
1. All of humankind has the same origin. So they must be mindful of their Lord Who created them, and should be merciful to each other.
• أوصى الله تعالى بالإحسان إلى الضعفة من النساء واليتامى، بأن تكون المعاملة معهم بين العدل والفضل.
2. Allah commands kindness to those who are weak among women and orphans, so that the treatment of them should be just and generous.
• جواز تعدد الزوجات إلى أربع نساء، بشرط العدل بينهن، والقدرة على القيام بما يجب لهن.
3. It is permissible for a Muslim man to have up to four wives, with the condition of being just between them, and being able to support them.
• مشروعية الحَجْر على السفيه الذي لا يحسن التصرف، لمصلحته، وحفظًا للمال الذي تقوم به مصالح الدنيا من الضياع.
4. It is legitimate to place the incompetent person who does not behave correctly under guardianship, for his own good and to protect him from wasting his wealth, which is used for his welfare in this world.
7. Men are to have a share of what their parents or relatives – such as brothers and sisters or uncles and aunts – leave when they die, whether it is much or little. Women are also to have a share of what they leave, which was not the way that things were in the time of ignorance before Islam, when women and children were left out of the inheritance. This share is a right and its amount is clearly set out – as made obligatory by Allah.
8. If relatives, orphans and the poor, who do not inherit, are present at the time the inheritance is divided, then give them, out of kindness, some of this wealth before it is divided, for they may be looking at it with desire for a share; and it came to you without you doing anything. Also, speak to them in a kind way, without any meanness.
9. Let those executors and guardians fear in the manner they would if they had died and left young, weak children behind them, fearing they would be ruined. Let them be mindful of orphans under their guardianship, not doing any wrong to them. So that Allah brings about others to treat well their own children after they die, as they treated the orphans well. Let whoever is present at the making of will, say what is right for the children, so that the heirs are not wronged in the will. Nor should the giver deprive himself of this good deed by not leaving a will.
11. Allah instructs you in the matter of the inheritance of children that the inheritance should be divided between them. A son gets a share equal to the share of two daughters. If the person who died left daughters without a son, two daughters or more get two thirds of what is left. If there is just one daughter, she gets a half of what is left. For each of the parents of the person who has died, they get a sixth of what is left, if he has children. If he does not have children or any heir except for his parents, then the mother gets a third, and the father gets the rest. If the person who has died has two or more siblings, whether brothers, sisters, half-brothers, or half-sisters, then his mother gets a sixth as a share, and the father gets the rest – so the brothers and sisters are not given anything. This division of the inheritance is after the bequests of the will have been deducted, with the condition that the bequests in the will cannot be more than a third of the total wealth and debts have been repaid from the wealth. Allah has made the division of inheritance like this because you do not know whether your parents or your children are closer to you in benefit in this world and the next. For instance, a person may think well of someone and leave everything to them, or think badly of someone and not leave them anything, and they may be wrong in their opinion in both cases. Allah knows the reality of things and nothing is hidden from Him. For this reason, the division of inheritance is as He made clear, and He made it obligatory for His servants. Allah knows everything, and nothing is hidden from Him of what is good for His servants – He is Wise in His sacred law and administration.
12. You have half of what your wives leave, if they have no child. If they have a child, whether it is your child or not, then you get a fourth of the wealth they leave, after any bequest they have made and the repayment of any debts they had. Wives get a quarter of what you leave, if you have no child, whether it is their child or not. If you have a child, then they get an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you have made and the repayment of any debts you had. If someone dies without any parents or children to inherit from them, but they have a brother or sister from the same mother as them, then each of them gets a sixth. If they have more than one brother or sister from the same mother as them, then they share a third, with brothers and sisters receiving the same share – this is after any bequest that they leave and the repayment of any debts they had, with the condition that the bequest does not cause harm to any of the inheritors, such as it being more than a third of the total of the wealth. The rulings contained in the verses about inheritance law are an obligation on you, and Allah knows what is in the interests of His servants in this world and the Afterlife. He is forbearing, and not quick to punish.
13. The rulings regarding orphans and other matters mentioned above are the sacred laws of Allah, which Allah has given to His servants to follow. Whoever follows Allah and His Messenger in His instructions, staying away from what He has prohibited, Allah will enter them into gardens with rivers flowing beneath their palaces, where they will live eternally. That divine reward is the great success, which no other success comes near to.
14. Whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger, by not following His laws or doubting them, and overstepping the limits He has made, He will enter them into a fire where they will remain – for them is a humiliating punishment there.
• لا تقسم الأموال بين الورثة حتى يقضى ما على الميت من دين، ويخرج منها وصيته التي لا يجوز أن تتجاوز ثلث ماله.
1. The inheritance wealth is not divided between the inheritors until any debts that the person who died had have been settled, and their lawful bequests have been taken from it, which cannot be more than a third of the total wealth.
• التحذير من التهاون في قسمة المواريث؛ لأنها عهد الله ووصيته لعباده المؤمنين؛ فلا يجوز تركها أو التهاون فيها.
2. There is here a warning against being careless about the division of the inheritance, because it is Allah’s contract and His commandment to His believing servants, so it is forbidden to disregard it or to be careless about it.
• من علامات الإيمان امتثال أوامر الله، وتعظيم نواهيه، والوقوف عند حدوده.
3. The characteristics of faith include following what Allah instructs and respecting what He has prohibited, and stopping at the limits He has established.
• من عدل الله تعالى وحكمته أن من أطاعه وعده بأعظم الثواب، ومن عصاه وتعدى حدوده توعده بأعظم العقاب.
4. Allah has made obligatory upon His servants these laws related to inheritance and its division between the inheritors and warned them against being complacent about them.
15. For those of your women who commit sexual offences – whether they are married or unmarried – call four trustworthy Muslim men witnesses. If they bear witness against them, then confine them to their homes as a punishment, until the end of their lives, or until Allah makes a way for them other than being confined. The ruling of this verse was replaced with the ruling that unmarried women who have illicit sexual relations should be whipped a hundred times and banished for a year, and married women who have illicit sexual relations should be stoned.
16. If two of your men commit a sexual offence – whether they are married or unmarried – punish them with words and blows, humiliating and disciplining them. If they turn away from what they were doing and correct themselves, then do not harm them. Those who turn away from a sin and ask for forgiveness are like those who have not sinned. Allah turns to those who repent to Him asking for forgiveness, and is Compassionate with them. The ruling of this verse was replaced with the ruling that unmarried men who have illicit sexual relations should be whipped a hundred times and banished for a year, and married men who have illicit sexual relations should be stoned.
17. Allah only turns in mercy and forgiveness to those who commit disobedience and overstep the limits out of foolishness and impulse, and who repent to Allah asking for His forgiveness before the time of their death. Allah forgives these people, by overlooking their disobedience. Allah knows the circumstances of people, and is Wise in His decree and sacred laws.
18. Allah does not turn in mercy and forgiveness to those who continue in their disobedience, overstepping the limits and insisting on overstepping them, and not turning away from doing this until they are dying, then saying that they regret what they did and asking for Allah’s forgiveness. Also, Allah does not turn in mercy and forgiveness to those who die in disbelief – He has prepared a painful punishment for them.
19. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, you are not allowed to inherit the wives of your fathers in the way wealth is inherited or marry them, or give them in marriage, or stop them from marrying. Also, it is forbidden for you to retain your wives who you do not like in order to get them to give back some of what you gave to them, unless they have had illegal sexual relations. In that case, you can get them to return what you gave them. Be good companions to your women, not hurting them, and be kind to them. If you do not like them for some worldly reason, then be patient with them. Allah may put much good in what you do not like, both in the life of this world and in the Afterlife.
• ارتكاب فاحشة الزنى من أكثر المعاصي خطرًا على الفرد والمجتمع؛ ولهذا جاءت العقوبات عليها شديدة.
1. Sexual immorality is among the most poisonous sins for the individual and for society, and for this reason the punishments for it are formidable.
• لطف الله ورحمته بعباده حيث فتح باب التوبة لكل مذنب، ويسر له أسبابها، وأعانه على سلوك سبيلها.
2. Allah is kind and merciful with His servants since He opens the door of repentance to every sinner, making it easier for them, and helps them to travel on its path.
• كل من عصى الله تعالى بعمد أو بغير عمد فهو جاهل بقدر من عصاه جل وعلا، وجاهل بآثار المعاصي وشؤمها عليه.
3. Whoever disobeys Allah, intentionally or unintentionally, is unaware of the greatness of He Whom they go against, and unaware of the effects of disobedience and the misfortune it brings upon them.
• من أسباب استمرار الحياة الزوجية أن يكون نظر الزوج متوازنًا، فلا يحصر نظره فيما يكره، بل ينظر أيضا إلى ما فيه من خير، وقد يجعل الله فيه خيرًا كثيرًا.
4. A marriage is made successful when the spouses have a balanced perspective. Someone should not limit their consideration to what they do not like in their spouse, but should also look at the good in them.
20. If you want to divorce a woman and replace her with another, then you are allowed to do so; but if you gave the one you intend to divorce a great deal of wealth as a dowry, then you are not allowed to take anything back from it. Taking back what you gave to them would be an injustice and a clear sin.
21. How could you take what you gave to them as a dowry after the relationship, love, enjoyment and sharing of secrets that has occurred between you? Greed for the wealth which is theirs after all this is forbidden and shameful. They took a sincere promise from you, by which they became lawful to you through the Word of Allah and His sacred law.
22. Do not marry women whom your fathers married. That is forbidden, unless it happened before in the time of ignorance, in which case you will not be taken to account for it. Sons marrying the wives of their fathers is a shameful practice, a cause for earning Allah’s anger.
23. Allah has prohibited you to marry your mothers and grandmothers, your daughters and granddaughters, your sisters and half-sisters, your aunts and great aunts, your nieces and their children, your milk-mothers who nursed you and your sisters through nursing, the mothers of your wives (whether you have consummated the marriage or not), and the daughters of your wives by someone else (who were mostly raised in your houses, and also those who were not, if you have consummated the marriage; but if you have not, then there is nothing wrong with marrying their daughters). You are also prohibited to marry those who have been married to your own sons, even if they did not consummate the marriage, and this includes the wives of your sons through milk-kinship (nursing). It is prohibited for you to marry two sisters who are related by blood or by nursing, except if this happened in the time of ignorance before Islam, in which case Allah has forgiven it. Allah is Forgiving and Compassionate to His servants who repent to Him. In the traditions of the Prophet it is also confirmed that it is prohibited to marry a woman and her aunt at the same time.
24. Those who are already married are prohibited to you, except those who you have captured whilst fighting in Allah’s cause: they are allowed to you after making sure they are not pregnant – this is what Allah has decreed. All women other than those who have been prohibited are allowed for you, if you seek them with your wealth, in a chaste way, desiring what is lawful and not desiring sexual immorality. Give those you enjoy in marriage their dowry, which Allah has made an obligation on you. However, there is nothing wrong if you mutually agree, after the obligation of the dowry has been set, to increase it, or to give up part of it. Allah knows His creation and nothing about them is hidden from Him. He is Wise in His administration and in His sacred law-giving.
25. Whoever among you cannot marry a free woman, because he does not have enough wealth, is allowed to marry a believing slave owned by someone else. Allah knows the reality of your faith and your situation, and you are equal in your faith and humanity, so do not look down on marrying them. Marry them with the permission of their owners, and give them their dowries without reducing the amount or delaying it. This is if they are chaste and do not commit sexual offences publicly and do not take lovers secretly. If you marry them and then they have illicit sexual relations, their punishment is half that of a free woman: fifty lashes, and not stoning, which is the punishment for chaste women. Marrying chaste believing slave women is a concession for those who fear falling into illicit sexual relations, and who are not able to marry free women. Patience is preferable to marrying slave women though, so that the children do not become slaves. Allah is Forgiving and Compassionate to those of His servants who repent to Him, and it is from His mercy that He allowed marriage to slaves in the case of not being able to marry free women, for those who fear falling into illicit sexual relations.
26. Through these rulings, Allah – may He be glorified – wishes to make clear to you His sacred law and way of life, and what is in your interests in this world and in the Afterlife. He wishes to guide you to the ways of the prophets before you in allowing things and prohibiting them, and to their noble qualities, and praiseworthy behaviour, so you can follow them. He wishes to return you from disobedience to following Him. Allah knows what is in the interests of His servants, and makes His laws accordingly; and He is Wise in His sacred laws and in managing their lives.
29. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, do not take the money of others unjustly, by force, stealing, bribery or by any other unjust means. Instead, money should come from trade through mutual agreement and goodwill between the seller and buyer. In this way, it is lawful for you to enjoy and use such money. Do not kill one another, and do not kill yourselves, and do not throw yourselves to ruin. Allah is Compassionate with you, and from His mercy He makes these laws.
30. Whoever does the things which Allah has prohibited – taking the money of others, or wronging himself by killing and the like, doing wrong knowingly, and not doing it out of ignorance or forgetfulness – Allah will enter them into a great fire on the Day of Judgement, where they will suffer its burning heat and receive their punishment. That is easy for Allah, because He is powerful over everything.
31. O believers, if you avoid the major sins, such as worshipping others gods with Allah, disrespecting your parents, killing, and receiving interest on loans, then Allah will forgive you for smaller sins, wiping them out and erasing them. Then Allah will enter you into a noble place near to Him: Paradise.
32. O believers, do not wish for what Allah favours some of you over others with, so that this does not lead to resentment and envy. Women should not wish for what Allah has given to men in particular: for men is a share from what they do, and for women is a share from what they do – neither of them is rewarded except through what they earn. Ask Allah to answer your prayers out of His favour to you. Allah knows all things. In His wisdom, He gives and withholds.
33. For every one of you I have made relations to inherit from what parents and relatives leave in their inheritance; and for those who you have made a promise of allegiance with as an ally and helper, give them their share of the inheritance. I am a witness to everything, and I witness your oaths and promises. The ally inheriting was a ruling at the beginning of Islam, but this ruling was later replaced.
• سعة رحمة الله بعباده؛ فهو سبحانه يحب التوبة منهم، والتخفيف عنهم، وأما أهل الشهوات فإنما يريدون بهم ضلالًا عن الهدى.
1. Allah’s mercy towards His servants is vast. He – glory be to Him – loves that they repent to Him; and He loves making things easier for them. As for the people of desires, they only want to lead them astray from guidance.
• حفظت الشريعة حقوق الناس؛ فحرمت الاعتداء على الأنفس والأموال والأعراض، ورتبت أعظم العقوبة على ذلك.
2. The sacred law guards the rights of people, forbidding wrongdoing against people’s lives, wealth and honour and put in place the severest of punishments for it.
• الابتعاد عن كبائر الذنوب سبب لدخول الجنة ومغفرة للصغائر.
3. Staying away from the major sins is a reason for entering Paradise and being forgiven for minor sins.
• الرضا بما قسم الله، وترك التطلع لما في يد الناس؛ يُجنِّب المرء الحسد والسخط على قدر الله تعالى.
4. Being content with Allah’s decree, not wishing for what other people have, keeps a person away from envy, and from resenting the decree of Allah.
34. Men are responsible for women, protecting and taking care of them, because of the bounty He has given men over them, and because of their duty to maintain and take care of them. Righteous women are devoted to their Lord, and devoted to their husbands, protecting things for them in their absence through Allah’s help. The women who you fear would not show devotion to their husbands in what they say or do, first remind them of how they should act according to the sacred laws; if they do not change their ways, then leave them alone in bed, turning your back to them and not having sexual relations; and if they still do not change their ways, then strike them without any ferocity. If they become loyal again, then do not do anything against them, not wronging them nor blaming them. Allah is High in His essence, Great in His attributes, so be mindful of Him.
35. If you fear that a disagreement between the two of them is leading to aggression and incompatibility, then send a just man from the family of the husband, and a just man from the family of the wife to judge what the benefits of them separating or staying together might be. Staying together is preferable and better. If the two judges want this, using the best methods to get them back together, then Allah will make them come to an understanding, and the argument between them will be resolved. Allah is Knowing. Nothing about His creatures is hidden from Him, and He is Aware of what they hide in their hearts.
36. Worship Allah alone faithfully and do not worship next to Him anything else. Be good to your parents, honouring them and treating them with respect, and be good to relatives, orphans and the poor. Be good to the neighbour who is a relative and the neighbour who is not a relative; the friend you spend time with; the traveller who is a stranger and has no means whereby to complete his journey; and to slaves. Allah does not like those who think too much of themselves and are arrogant with people, and praise themselves as a way of boasting.
37. Allah does not like those who do not spend what Allah made a duty on them from the wealth He gave them out of His provision, and who instruct others through their words and actions to do the same as them: hiding the wealth, knowledge and other things which Allah has given them out of His grace; not showing people the truth, but hiding it instead and showing falsehood. These are among the traits of disbelief, and Allah has prepared a humiliating punishment for those who disbelieve.
• ثبوت قِوَامة الرجال على النساء بسبب تفضيل الله لهم باختصاصهم بالولايات، وبسبب ما يجب عليهم من الحقوق، وأبرزها النفقة على الزوجة.
1. The ayahs confirm men’s trusteeship over women because of Allah favouring them, and because of what is obligatory upon them regarding rights of maintenance.
• التحذير من البغي وظلم المرأة في التأديب بتذكير العبد بقدرة الله عليه وعلوه سبحانه.
2. The husband has the right to try to improve the behaviour of his wife if she behaves in a way which is not loyal to him, following a gradual progression of measures without oppression or aggression.
• التحذير من ذميم الأخلاق، كالكبر والتفاخر والبخل وكتم العلم وعدم تبيينه للناس.
3. The verses declare the importance Allah places on the rights of the parents, putting them together with His rights, and stresses the importance of kindness to the various categories of people.
38. Allah has prepared this humiliating punishment for those who spend their wealth so that people notice them and praise them, and those who do not have faith in Allah and the Last Day. It is through following Satan that they have gone the wrong way. Whoever has Satan for a friend and companion has a terrible companion.
39. What harm would it have done these people if they had faith in Allah and the Last Day and had spent their wealth for Allah’s sake, being sincere to Him? Rather, they would have received everything that is good by doing so. Allah has full knowledge of them. Nothing about them is hidden from Him and everyone will be rewarded according to what they do.
40. Allah is Just and does not wrong His creatures in any way. He does not lessen the good they do by the weight of even a tiny particle or dust, and He does not add to their disobedience in any way. Even if only an atom’s worth of good is done, He multiplies the reward, from His grace, and through this increase He gives a great reward.
41. What will it be like on the Day of Judgement, when Allah brings the prophet of each community to bear witness against their actions, and Allah brings the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as a witness for all the communities and messengers?
42. On that great day, those who disbelieved in Allah and went against His Messenger will wish they were dust and that the earth and they were level. They will not hide anything of what they did from Allah. Allah will seal their mouths so that they cannot speak and will give permission to their limbs to bear witness to what they did.
43. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, do not pray when you are drunk, until you recover from your drunkenness, and can tell what you are saying. (This ruling was before alcohol was completely forbidden.) Do not pray when you are in a state of major ritual impurity, and do not enter the mosques when you are in that state, except in passing, until you have washed your body. If you have an illness and cannot use water because of it, or if you are travelling, or have answered the call of nature, or have had sexual relations with women, and you cannot find water, then find clean earth, and wipe your faces and hands with it. Allah pardons your shortcomings and is Forgiving to you.
44. O Messenger, do you not know about the Jews who were given a portion of knowledge in the Torah and traded guidance for error? They wish you would go astray from following the right way of life – which the Messenger came with – and that you would follow them in their deviation.
45. Allah knows your enemies better than you do, O believers, so He informs you of them and makes clear to you that they are against you. Allah is enough as a Protector, keeping you safe from them harming you; and Allah is enough as a Helper, stopping them from plotting against you and from hurting you.
46. Among the Jews are an evil group who change the words Allah sent down, interpreting them in a way that they were not revealed. They say to the Messenger (peace be upon him), when he instructs them in something, that they hear and disobey, and say, “Listen to us, may you not hear!; and give the wrong impression when they say, ‘Rā’inā’: meaning ‘watch over us’ when they really mean ‘ru’ūnah’ or ‘silliness’, twisting what they say when they want to call the Prophet (peace be upon him) so that they say something insulting to the faith. If they had said ‘We hear and obey’, instead of ‘We hear and disobey’; ‘Listen’, instead of ‘‘Listen to us, may you not hear!"; and had truly said, ‘Watch over us’, then these would have been better for them than what they said, and more appropriate, being worthy and correct behaviour in the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him). But Allah condemned them and removed them from His mercy due to their disbelief, because they do not have faith in any way that is beneficial.
47. O you of the Jews and the Christians who were given the scripture, have faith in what I revealed to Muhammad (peace be upon him) which confirmed what you had in the Torah and the Gospel, before the faces are blotted out and are turned backwards; or they are removed from the mercy of Allah like those who broke the Sabbath by fishing when this had been prohibited to them, for which Allah transformed them into monkeys. Allah’s decree is certainly carried out.
48. Allah does not forgive that anything from His creation should be associated to Him. Besides this and disbelief, He pardons the disobedience of whomever He wills, out of His bounty. Or He punishes those He wills among them according to their disobedience, out of His perfect justice. Whoever worships others next to Allah has committed a terrible sin, which is not forgiven if someone dies still doing it.
49. Do you not know, O Messenger, the affair of those who are full of praise for themselves and of what they do? Allah alone praises whomever He wills, because He knows whatever is hidden in people’s hearts, and will not lessen the reward for their actions in any way, not even as much as the thread of a date stone.
51. Do you not know, O Messenger, and wonder at the state of the Jews – who Allah gave a portion of knowledge – that believe in all sorts of false gods, and flatter the idolaters, saying that they are more rightly guided than the Companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him).
1. Allah Help is sufficient for the believers and His Assistance suffices them.
• بيان جرائم اليهود، كتحريفهم كلام الله، وسوء أدبهم مع رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وتحاكمهم إلى غير شرعه سبحانه.
2. The Jews were guilty of distorting the word of Allah and displayed bad behaviour towards His Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him).
• بيان خطر الشرك والكفر، وأنه لا يُغْفر لصاحبه إذا مات عليه، وأما ما دون ذلك فهو تحت مشيئة الله تعالى.
3. The ayahs show the danger of associating partners with Allah and disbelief in Him, and that those who die commiting these sins will not be forgiven. Other sins still being commited at the time of death may be forgiven.
54. Rather, they envy Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his Companions because of the prophethood, faith and establishment in the land which Allah has given to them. Why do they envy them when Allah gave the descendants of Abraham the revealed scripture and other revelation besides the scripture, and Allah gave them far-reaching power over people.
55. Some of the People of the Scripture have faith in what Allah revealed to Abraham (peace be upon him), and to the prophets among his descendants; and there are those who denied this, and turned people away from having faith in it, and who do the same with what was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The fire of Hell is sufficient as a punishment for those of them who disbelieve.
56. Those who disbelieve in the signs and verses of Allah will be entered into a fire that surrounds them on the Day of Judgement. Whenever their skins have been burned, they will be replaced with fresh skins, so that they continue to feel the punishment. Allah is Mighty, and nothing detracts from His might. And He is Wise in His administration and decree.
57. Those who have faith in Allah and follow His messengers, doing good actions, will be entered on the Day of Judgement into gardens with rivers flowing beneath their palaces, where they will live eternally. In these gardens there will be mates for them, purified from any impurity, and they will be entered into expansive refreshing shade.
58. Allah instructs you, O believers, to return things in your care to the people who own them. He instructs you, if you judge between people in any matter, to judge between them with justice according to His sacred laws. Allah’s laws in every situation for you are, of course, excellent. Allah hears all that you say and sees all that you do.
59. O you who have faith, follow Allah and His Messenger: doing what they instruct and staying away from what they prohibit, and follow those in authority, as long as they do not instruct you to do wrong. If you disagree about something, then refer it to Allah’s revelation and the traditions of His Prophet (peace be upon him), if you have faith in Allah and the Last Day. Referring to the revelation and the traditions is better than continuing in your disagreements and in giving mere opinions, and will bring about the best result for you.
• من أعظم أسباب كفر أهل الكتاب حسدهم المؤمنين على ما أنعم الله به عليهم من النبوة والتمكين في الأرض.
1. One of the biggest reasons for the disbelief of the People of the Scripture is their envy of the believers because of the prophethood and the establishment on earth which Allah has blessed them with.
• الأمر بمكارم الأخلاق من المحافظة على الأمانات، والحكم بالعدل.
2. The sacred law establishes a duty to look after things that are put in your care, and to return them to the people who own them.
• وجوب طاعة ولاة الأمر ما لم يأمروا بمعصية، والرجوع عند التنازع إلى حكم الله ورسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم تحقيقًا لمعنى الإيمان.
3. Humankind must judge between people with justice, because they are prohibited from oppression and injustice.
60. Have you not seen, O Messenger, the contradiction of the hypocrites among the Jews, who claim falsely that they have faith in what was revealed to you and in what was revealed to the messengers before you, but in resolving their disagreements want to refer back to what Allah has not legislated, and what people have invented, when they were instructed to reject such things. Satan wants to lead them far away from the truth, and they will not be guided through this.
61. If these hypocrites are told to come to the law that Allah has revealed in His Scripture, and to the Messenger to judge between them in their disagreements, you will see them, O Messenger, turning away from you completely to others.
62. How will their situation be when misfortunes come upon them because of the sins they have committed, and then they come to you, O Messenger, apologising and swearing by Allah that when they turned to other things to try and settle their disagreements they were only trying to do good and bring about reconciliation between the people who were disagreeing. What they say is false, and doing good involves following the rulings of Allah’s sacred law.
63. Allah knows what hypocrisy and ulterior motives these people hide in their hearts, so turn away from them, O Messenger, and make clear to them the laws of Allah: encouraging them to be loyal to Allah, making clear to them how wrong it is to turn away from Him, and advise them in a way that will move them.
64. Allah did not send any messenger except to be followed in what they instructed by Allah’s will and decree. If, when they wronged themselves by committing sins, they had come to you, O Messenger, confessing what they had done and regretting it, repenting from what they did, and if they had asked for forgiveness from Allah, and you had asked for forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Forgiving and Compassionate with them.
65. What these hypocrites claim is not true. Allah swears by Himself that they will not have real faith until they refer for judgements to the Messenger, during his lifetime, and to the sacred law after his death, in every disagreement between them, and are happy with the Messenger’s ruling, without feeling hatred about it, or doubting it, and accepting it completely and faithfully, outwardly and inwardly.
69. Those who follow Allah and the Messenger will be with those whom Allah has blessed with entry into Paradise from amongst the prophets, the truthful ones whose acceptance of what the prophets brought was complete and who practised it, the martyrs who were killed in Allah’s path, and the righteous whose outward and inward states and actions are virtuous. What excellent companions these are in Paradise!
71. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, be on your guard against your enemies by adopting the means that will help you to fight them. Go out to fight them one group after the other or go out altogether and do what is in your interests and what will bring loss to your enemies.
72. There are among you, O Muslims, some people who hesitate to go out to fight your enemies, because of their cowardice, and who also try to keep others behind. They are the hypocrites and who are weak in faith. If you are killed or defeated, then one of them, happy that he is safe, says, ‘Allah has favoured me in that I was not present at the fight with them, otherwise I would have also been harmed like them’.
73. If Allah’s grace of support and gains of war come to you, O Muslims, this person – who lags behind from striving in Allah’s path – says, as if there was friendship or affinity between you and him, ‘If only I was with them in that fight, I would have also gained great success’. Worldly benefits are the only goal of such a person.
74. Let the true believers – who sell the life of this world in exchange for the Afterlife, desiring the Afterlife more than the goods of this world – fight in the path of Allah so that Allah’s Word is victorious. Anyone who fights in the path of Allah, so that His Word triumphs, and is killed as a martyr or defeats the enemy and is successful, Allah will give them a great reward: Paradise and the pleasure of Allah.
75. What is preventing you, O believers, from striving in the path of Allah in order to raise His Word and to rescue the oppressed men, women and children who call to Allah, saying, ‘Our Lord, let us leave Makkah, because its people are oppressive – due to their associating partners with Allah and their aggression towards His servants. Give us someone from You who will take control of our affairs, take care of us and protect us from harm’.
76. The true believers fight in the path of Allah in order to raise His Word. The disbelievers, on the other hand, fight in the path and way of Satan. So fight the supporters of Satan. If you fight them, you will defeat them, because Satan’s strategy is weak and it cannot harm those who place their reliance in Allah.
77. Have you, O Messenger, thought about the condition of some of your Companions who asked that striving in Allah’s path be ordained for them, but they were told, ‘Restrain your hands from fighting, establish the prayer and give charity ’. This was before striving in Allah’s path was ordained. When they migrated to Medina and Islam became strong, and fighting was ordained, they found it difficult, and some of them began fearing people as they should fear Allah or even more than that. They said, ‘Our Lord, why did You ordain fighting for us? Why did You not delay it for a while so we could enjoy the worldly life’. Say to them, O Messenger: The enjoyment of the world, no matter how much, is little and perishable. Yet the Hereafter is better for the one who is mindful of Allah because its delights are everlasting. Your good actions will not be reduced in the least, not even to the extent of the thread that is on the date stone.
78. At any time and place, death will surely come to you when reach your prescribed life term, even if you are in guarded palaces far from battle. And when these hypocrites receive something pleasing, such as a child or wealth, they say, ‘This is from Allah’. Yet when they face some difficulty with respect to their children or wealth, they attribute a bad sign and misfortune to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and they say, ‘This evil is because of you’. Say, O Messenger, in response to these people: Everything, good or bad, occurs by Allah’s decree and decision. What is the matter with these people, who say such things, that they can hardly understand anything you tell them?
79. O humankind, any good that pleases you – such as wealth or children – is from Allah. He has sent it to you through His grace. Whatever bad occurs to you in respect of your wealth or children is from your own self because of the sins you commit. I have sent you, O Prophet, as a messenger to all people to communicate to them the message of your Lord. Allah is enough of a witness to the truth of what you communicate from Him, because of the evidences and proof He has given you.
80. Whoever follows the Messenger by fulfilling his instructions and avoiding his prohibitions has actually followed Allah. If anyone turns away from following you, O Messenger, do not feel sad about it, because I have not sent you as a guard to watch over what they do. I am the One Who will watch them and hold them to account for their actions.
81. The hypocrites say to you, ‘We follow your instruction and we will act with obedience’. Yet when they leave you, a group of them secretly plan the opposite of what they said to you. Allah knows their planning and He will recompense them accordingly. So turn away from them and pay no attention, as they will not harm you at all. Surrender your matter to Allah and rely on Him alone for He is sufficient for you as a Guardian to watch over your affairs and take care of you.
82. Why do these people not reflect over the Qur'ān and study it until they realise that it contains no differences or inconsistency, so that they can accept the truth of what you brought? Had it been from anyone other than Allah, they would have found inconsistencies in its rulings and differences in its meanings.
83. Whenever there comes a public matter comprising safety and happiness for the Muslims, or matters of fear and sadness, the hypocrites rush to spread its news amongst the people. If they had waited and referred the matter to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) and to those in charge of their affairs, those who are able to reason and draw conclusions would know what is to be done with respect to spreading such news or concealing it. If it were not for Allah’s grace and mercy on you, almost all of you would have followed the whisperings of Satan.
84. Fight, O Prophet, in Allah’s path to raise His Word. You will not be questioned about or held accountable for others. You are only responsible to fight yourself and to urge the believers to do so. Perhaps Allah will push back the force of the disbelievers by your fighting. Allah is stronger in force and more severe in punishment.
85. Whoever intercedes or directs another person to some good them in a manner containing no sin or oppression, will receive a share of the reward of the good outcome; and whoever makes a bad intercession, which contains sin or oppression, will receive a share of the sin. Allah watches everything that a person does and will reward him accordingly. So if you become a means of goodness, you will receive a share in that good; and if you become a means of doing evil, you will be guilty for a part of it.
86. When anyone offers a greeting of peace to you, then respond to him with something better than what he offered or return a similar greeting to him. To respond with something better is more virtuous. Allah keeps watch over what you do and He will reward each person according to his actions.
87. Allah is the One Who alone deserves to be worshipped. He will gather every single one of you on the Day of Judgement, about which there is no doubt, in order to reward you for your actions. There is no one more truthful in speech than Allah.
88. Why is it, O believers, that you have become two groups differing over how to deal with the hypocrites? One group wants to fight against them because of their disbelief and another group wants to leave them because of their faith. You should not disagree over them for Allah has returned them to disbelief and misguidance because of their actions. Do you wish to guide those whom Allah has not shown the truth? If Allah misguides anyone, you will never find a way to guide such a person.
89. The hypocrites wish that you disbelieve in what was revealed to you as they have done, so that you can be equal to them in disbelief. Due to their animosity, do not take them as friends until they migrate in Allah’s path; hence indicating their faith. If they turn away and continue with their bad actions, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them. Do not take from them any friend to help you with your affairs nor anyone to assist you against your enemies.
90. But you cannot act like this with those of them who join a people with whom you have a peace treaty or those who come to you reluctant to fight against you or their own people. If Allah willed to give them power over you, He would have done so and they would have fought you. Therefore, accept the safety that Allah has given you and do not interfere with them by killing or taking any one of them as captives. If they stay away without fighting you and they come to you to make peace, then Allah has not given you any authority to fight them or take any of them as prisoners.
91. You, O believers, will find another group of hypocrites who pretend to have faith when they are before you in order to protect themselves; but they display their disbelief when they are with their people, so that they are safe from them as well. Whenever they are called to disbelief in Allah and to ascribe partners to Him, they plunge into it. These are the ones, if they do not keep away from fighting you or if they do not make peace with you and restrain themselves, to seize and kill wherever you find them. These are the ones whom Allah has given you a clear authority for seizing and killing them because they are treacherous.
92. It is unlawful for a believer to kill another believer, unless it occurs by mistake. If anyone kills a believer by mistake, he must free a believing slave as a compensation for his action. The relatives of the killer, who inherit from him, will be responsible for the blood money to be handed over to the successors of the victim, unless the successors give up the right If the victim belonged to a people at war with you, but he was a believer, then the killer must free a believing slave and no blood money will be owed. If the victim was not a believer but belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty, such as disbelievers living in an Islamic state, the relatives of the killer, who inherit from him, will be responsible for blood money to be handed over to the successors of the victim and the killer must free a believing slave as compensation for his action. If he cannot find anyone to free or he cannot afford the price, then he must fast continuously for two consecutive months so that Allah accepts his repentance for what he has done. Allah knows the actions of His servants and their intentions; and He is Wise in His legislation and planning.
93. If anyone kills a believer, deliberately intending to do so, his recompense will be Hell to live there eternally. Allah will be angry with him, distance him from His mercy, and will prepare for him a great punishment for committing such a serious crime. The belief of the Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā’ah is that if the killer is a believing Muslim, he will not literally remain in Hell eternally; but he will be punished in it for a long period and will then be removed from there through Allah’s grace.
94. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, when you go out to fight in Allah’s path, be sure about the case of those you are fighting. Do not say to the person who displays something indicating that he is a believer, ‘You are not a believer! You only displayed Islam out of fear for your life and wealth’; so that you then kill him in order to get the trivial goods of the world, such as the booty you acquire from this person after killing him. Yet Allah has much provision that is better and greater than this. In the past you were also like this person: hiding your faith from the people. Then Allah favoured you with Islam and protected your lives. So be careful, as Allah knows well what you do. Nothing is hidden from Him and He will reward you for your actions.
95. Those believers who remain behind from striving in Allah’s path – besides those who have an excuse, such as sickness – are not equal to those who strive in Allah’s path, spending their wealth and giving their time. Allah has given those who strive in His path a rank above those who remain behind. Those who strive, as well as those who remain behind with a valid excuse, shall receive the reward they deserve. Allah has preferred those who strive over those who sit back by giving them a greater reward from Him.
96. This reward will be ranks of loftiness and positions in the Paradise, one above the other, together with forgiveness of their sins and mercy. Allah is always Forgiving and Merciful towards His servants.
97. When the angels take the souls of those who wrong themselves by not migrating from the land of disbelief to the land of Islam, the angels say to them at that time, while reprimanding them, ‘What was the status of your religion that you did not migrate?’ They reply, presenting the excuse, ‘We were weak and powerless, and we could not defend ourselves’. The angels again criticise them, ‘Were not the lands of Allah spacious enough for you to leave the place you were in order to save your religion and yourselves from humiliation and domination?’ The end of those who did not migrate will be the fire of Hell, where they will settle. What an evil place of return it will be for them! This is because their failure to migrate, despite being able to do so, indicates that they were not true in their Islam.
100. Whoever migrates from the land of disbelief to the land of Islam in order to gain Allah’s pleasure will find a much better place in the land they migrated to, in comparison to the land they left. In this new land, they will receive honour and much provision. Whoever leaves their home as migrants to Allah and His Messenger and then pass away before reaching the land they are migrating to, their reward shall definitely be with Allah, even though they did not reach the land of migration. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful to those of His servants who repent to Him.
101. When you travel in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten the prayer from four units to two units of prayer, if you fear that the disbelievers will harm you. The disbelievers are open enemies to you, O believers.
102. When you, O Messenger, are with them in the army, fighting the enemy, and you wish to lead them in prayer, then divide the army into two groups: one group should stand and pray with you, keeping their weapons with them during the prayer, whilst the other group guards you. When the first group has completed one unit of prayer with the Imam, it must complete the rest of the prayer on its own, and then go to the back to face the direction of the enemy. Then the other group, which was on guard and which has not prayed as yet, should come and pray one unit of prayer with the leader. When the leader completes the prayer with the salām, they should complete the balance of their prayer on their own. They should be careful of the enemy and keep their weapons with them. The disbelievers wish that you become unmindful of your weapons and your goods when you are in prayer, so that they can attack you in a single assault. There is no sin on you to put down your weapons when you are in difficulty because of rain, illness, and the like. but be careful of the enemy as much as possible. Allah has prepared for the disbelievers a punishment that will humiliate them.
103. When you, O believers, have finished the prayer, then remember Allah by glorifying Him by saying ‘Subḥān Allāh’, praising Him by saying ‘Alḥamdulillāh’ and declaring His Oneness by saying ‘Lā ilāha illallāh’. This is to be done however possible, whether you are standing, sitting or lying on your sides. When the fear is gone and you are safe, then establish the prayer by fulfilling all its articles, obligations and recommendations, as you have been instructed. Prayer is an obligation on the believers that is linked to particular times and may not be delayed without a valid reason when one is a resident. However, when you are travelling you are allowed to join and shorten prayers.
104. Do not become weak and lazy, O believers, in pursuing your disbelieving enemy. If you are suffering pain because of the killing and injury that afflicts you, then they too are suffering the same pain as well. So do not let their patience be greater than yours, because you have hope of reward, help and support from Allah, which they cannot hope for. Allah knows the conditions of His servants and is Wise in His planning and legislation.
105. I have sent down to you, O Messenger, the Qur'ān, which contains the truth, so that you can clarify matters and judge between the people in accordance with what Allah has taught and inspired you with, and not according to your whims and fancy. Do not be one to defend those who betray their own selves and their promises against those who demand their rights from them.
108. When committing sin, they hide from people out of fear and shame; but they cannot hide from Allah. He is with them and knows what they do. Nothing is hidden from Him when they secretly plan to say things that He is not pleased with, such as defending a sinner or falsely accusing an innocent person. Allah surrounds them and knows what they do secretly and openly. Nothing is hidden from Him and He will repay them for their actions.
109. You – O those concerned with the matter of these people who commit sin – argued on behalf of them in the world in order to establish their innocence and protect them from the punishment; but who will argue with Allah for them on the Day of Judgement when He knows their real condition? Who will be their representative in the matter on that day? Without any doubt, no one will be able to do that.
110. If anyone does an evil action or wrongs themselves by committing sins, and then they ask for forgiveness from Allah, regretfully admitting their sin and leaving it, they will find that Allah is always ready to forgive their sins and show them mercy.
111. Those who commit a minor or major sin will have to face the punishment themselves. No one else will be held responsible. Allah knows the actions of His servants and is Wise in His planning and legislation.
112. If a person does a wrong action unintentionally or a sin intentionally and then accuses an innocent person of the same, they have taken on themselves a serious lie and a clear sin by acting in that manner.
113. If it were not for Allah’s grace in protecting you, O Messenger, a group of these people who deceive themselves would have tried to mislead you from the truth and you would have passed an unfair judgement. In reality, they only mislead their own selves, because they will have to face the consequences of their crime of misleading others. Allah has revealed the Qur'ān and Sunna to you and He has taught you guidance and light which you did not know before. Allah’s grace on you, by giving you prophethood and protecting you, is great.
114. There is no good or benefit in much of the secret talk that people engage in, unless their speech includes an encouragement towards charity, good actions brought by the sacred law or those good actions known and approved off by people, or calling towards reconciliation between arguing parties. Whoever does such good, whilst seeking Allah’s pleasure, He shall give them a great reward.
115. Whoever opposes and disobeys what the Messenger has brought after the truth has become clear to them, and follows a path other than that of the believers, I will leave them with what they have chosen; and I will not bring them to the truth, since they have deliberately turned away. I will then enter them into the fire of Hell to suffer in its heat. What an evil place to return to!
116. Allah does not forgive the crime of associating partners with Him, for anyone who does so and dies in that state will live eternally in the fire of Hell. He may forgive all other sins besides associating partners with Him for whomever He wills if such people die committing those sins without repentance, out of His mercy and grace. Whoever associates anything as a partner with Allah has gone far away from the truth, as he has made the creation equal with the Creator.
117. Instead of Allah, the idolators in Makkah worship female idols which were named with feminine names, such as al-Lāt and al-‘Uzzā, which can neither benefit nor harm anyone. In reality, they only worship Satan, who rebelled and sinned against his Lord, as he is the one who instructed them to worship the idols.
119. He also said: I will block them from your straight path. I will give them hopes with false promises that will make their misguidance seem attractive. I will instruct them to cut the ears of cattle, forbid that which Allah has made lawful, and change Allah’s creation and the natural disposition He made within all creatures. Whoever takes Satan as a friend to follow suffers a clear loss by doing so.
122. I will enter those who have faith in Me and do good actions that bring them close to Me into gardens with palaces overlooking flowing streams, where they will live eternally. This is a promise from Allah who is true in His promise. No one is more true then Him in His statements and promises.
123. The issue of salvation and success O Muslims is not dependent on mere hopes and desires, nor in what the People of the Scripture hope and wish for; rather, it is based on action. Whoever, from amongst you, does an evil action will be rewarded for it on the Day of Judgement. They will not find any friend to bring any benefit to them nor any helper to protect them from harm.
124. Any person, whether male or female, who does good actions and has true faith in Allah will enter Paradise, because they combined faith with practice. The reward of their actions will not be reduced in the least, not even to the extent of a speck on a date stone.
125. No one is better in religion than the one who surrenders to Allah outwardly and inwardly, does good actions and follows the religion of Abraham, which forms the basis of the religion of Muhammad (peace be upon him): inclining away from idolatry and disbelief to monotheism and faith. Allah chose His Prophet Abraham as a close friend from amongst all of His creation.
127. They ask you, O Messenger, about the rights and duties of women. Say: Allah will clarify for you what you have asked and what is recited in the Qur’ān with respect to orphan girls in your care, to whom you do not give the dowry and the inheritance that Allah has ordained for them; and whom you do not wish to marry, yet you prevent them from getting married because of your greed for their wealth. He also explains to you that your duty with respect to minor children who are helpless is to give them their due right of inheritance and not to wrong them by seizing their wealth. He explains to you the duty of being fair to orphans and looking after their best interests in this world and the Afterlife. Allah knows of any good you do towards orphans and others, and will reward you for it.
• ما عند الله من الثواب لا يُنال بمجرد الأماني والدعاوى، بل لا بد من الإيمان والعمل الصالح.
1. The reward that is with Allah cannot be achieved by simple hopes and claims. Instead, a person must have faith and do good actions.
• الجزاء من جنس العمل، فمن يعمل سوءًا يُجْز به، ومن يعمل خيرًا يُجْز بأحسن منه.
2. Rewards and recompense are linked to the action: if a person does evil, he will be requited for it. However if a person does good, he will be given something better as a reward.
• الإخلاص والاتباع هما مقياس قبول العمل عند الله تعالى.
3. The test for the acceptance of actions with Allah is sincerity and following the sacred law.
• عَظّمَ الإسلام حقوق الفئات الضعيفة من النساء والصغار، فحرم الاعتداء عليهم، وأوجب رعاية مصالحهم في ضوء ما شرع.
4. Islam has given great importance to the rights of weak groups, such as women and minors. It has prohibited infringing on such rights and made it a duty to give consideration to the interests of such individuals in the light of the laws it has set-down.
128. If a woman fears that her husband will ignore her and lose interest in her, there is no sin in them reaching a compromise where the woman gives up some of the rights due to her, such as maintenance and accommodation. In such a case, reconciliation is better than divorce. Souls have been naturally created with greed and miserliness, and will not be keen to give up any right. The couple should, therefore, deal with this characteristic by training the soul to be forgiving and generous. If you do good in your affairs and are mindful of Allah, by fulfilling His instructions and avoiding His prohibitions, then Allah knows what you do. Nothing is hidden from Him and He will reward you accordingly.
129. You, husbands, will not be able to be completely fair to your wives with respect to your affection, even if you tried to do so. This is due to circumstances and factors beyond your control. So do not incline fully away from the one you do not love and leave her like a woman suspended, who does not have a husband to fulfill her right and nor is she unmarried so that she may seek to marry another. If you set things right between yourselves, by giving the wife her due right and being mindful of Allah in that regard, then Allah will be Forgiving and Merciful towards you.
130. If a couple separate by divorce (issued by the man) or khul‘ (initiated by the woman), then Allah will make each one of them rich through His vast Bounty: He will enrich the man with a wife that is more suitable for him; and He will enrich the woman with a husband that is more suitable for her. Allah’s bounty and mercy is vast. He is Wise in His planning and decree.
131. The dominion of everything in the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, is Allah’s alone. He had instructed the People of the Scripture, the Jews and Christians, and has instructed you, O believers, to fulfil Allah’s orders and avoid His prohibitions. If you reject this instruction you only harm yourselves, because Allah is in no need of your obedience, as everything in the heavens and earth is His. He is in no need of any of His creation. He is the One Who is praised for all His attributes and actions.
134. Whoever from amongst you, O people, intends to only gain the reward of this world by their actions, they should know that with Allah is the reward of this world and the Afterlife, and they should seek the reward of them both from Him. Allah hears your statements and knows your actions, and He will reward you for them.
• استحباب المصالحة بين الزوجين عند المنازعة، وتغليب المصلحة بالتنازل عن بعض الحقوق إدامة لعقد الزوجية.
1. It is recommended that reconciliation be reached between a married couple who are in dispute. This should be done by giving up some rights in order to maintain the marriage bond.
• أوجب الله تعالى العدل بين الزوجات خاصة في الأمور المادية التي هي في مقدور الأزواج، وتسامح الشرع حين يتعذر العدل في الأمور المعنوية، كالحب والميل القلبي.
2. Allah has ordered the husband with more than one wife to be fair between his wives, especially in material things which are within the husband’s control. However, the sacred law overlooks those non-material things in which fairness is not possible, such as love and inclination.
• لا حرج على الزوجين في الفراق إذا تعذرت العِشْرة بينهما.
3. There is no harm if a couple separate when it is no longer possible to live together.
• الوصية الجامعة للخلق جميعًا أولهم وآخرهم هي الأمر بتقوى الله تعالى بامتثال الأوامر واجتناب النواهي.
4. A comprehensive piece of advice to humankind – every single one of them – is to be mindful of Allah by fulfilling His instructions and avoiding His prohibitions.
135. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, uphold justice in all conditions: testifying to the truth with respect to every person, even if that means you have to admit a right due on you, your parents or your relatives. A person’s being poor or rich should not make you give or avoid giving testimony, because Allah is closer to the poor or rich person than you are; and He knows what is in their best interests. Do not be led by your desires in your testimony, so that you do not deviate from the truth in it. If you distort the testimony by giving it inaccurately or if you turn away from fulfilling it, then Allah knows what you do.
136. O believers, be firm in your faith in Allah, His Messenger, the Qur’ān which He revealed to His Messenger and the books He revealed to the messengers before him. Anyone who disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers and the Day of Judgement has strayed far from the straight path.
137. Those who repeatedly disbelieve after accepting faith – by entering into the faith, then leaving it, entering into it again, then leaving again, and so on – and then continue in disbelief until they die as disbelievers, Allah will not forgive their sins and nor will He bring them to the straight path that leads to Him.
139. This punishment is because they took the disbelievers as their helpers and supporters instead of the believers. How strange that they took them as allies!. Do they search for assistance and protection with them? All assistance and protection belongs only to Allah and comes only from Him.
140. Allah has already revealed to you, O believers, in the noble Qur’ān that if you are sitting in a gathering and you hear a person disbelieving in Allah’s words starting to make fun of them, then you must not sit with them and you must leave the gathering until they begin speaking about something other than disbelief and making fun of Allah’s words. If you sit with them while you hear them disbelieving in and mocking at Allah’s words, then you are like them in not following Allah’s instruction, because you went against Allah by sitting with them just as they went against Him by disbelieving in Him. Allah will gather the hypocrites, who show themselves as Muslims on the outside but hide disbelief inside themselves, and the disbelievers together in the fire of Hell on the Day of Judgement.
141. Those who wait to see what happens to you – whether good or bad; or if Allah gives you victory and gains of war – say, ‘Were we not present together with you?’ in order to get some gains of war. If the disbelievers have some success, they say to them, ‘Did we not protect you from and defend you against the believers by assisting you instead of them’. Allah will judge between all of you on the Day of Judgement: rewarding the believers by giving them entry into Paradise and the hypocrites by sending them to the lowest level of the fire of Hell. Allah, in His grace, will never give the disbelievers the upper hand over the believers. Instead, the believers will be the winners in the end.
142. The hypocrites try to deceive Allah by showing themselves as believers on the outside while hiding disbelief inside. Allah, in turn, deceives them because He protects their lives despite knowing about their disbelief. In the Afterlife, He has prepared the most severe punishment for them. When they stand for prayer they do so lazily, with reluctance. They only remember Allah a little when they see the believers.
143. These hypocrites are wandering and confused. On both the inside and the outside, they are not with the believers, nor with the disbelievers. On the outside, they are with the believers; but inside, they are with the disbelievers. Whoever Allah misleads, you, O Messenger, will never find a way to guide such a person.
144. O you who have faith in Allah and follow His Messenger, do not take the disbelievers as your close friends instead of the believers. By doing so, do you wish to give Allah clear evidence against you, proving that you are deserving of punishment?
146. But those who turn to Allah repenting from their hypocrisy, correct themselves, hold on to Allah’s pledge and are sincere to Him in their practice, without showing off, such people will be with the believers in this world and the Afterlife. Allah will give the believers a huge reward.
147. There is no need for Allah to punish you if you are thankful to Him and have faith in Him. He is the One Who is Kind and Merciful. He only punishes you for your sins. If you do good actions, are thankful to Him for His favours and have faith in Him both inside and outside, He will never punish you. Allah is Grateful to the person who admits His favours; and He knows the faith of His creation. He will reward every person for his actions.
148. Allah does not like evil statements to be made public. He dislikes that and warns against it. However, if a person is wronged, he may mention the evil in order to complain against the guilty party, to call against him and to retaliate with similar words. In this case, too, it is better for the one who was wronged to be patient and not to disclose the matter. Allah hears your statements and knows your intentions, so be careful of saying or intending anything evil.
149. If you expose or hide a good statement or action, or if you pardon the person who does bad to you, Allah is Forgiving and Powerful. So let forgiveness be part of your character in order that Allah forgives you.
150. Those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers, and who want to make a distinction between Allah and His messengers by believing in Allah yet rejecting His messengers by saying, ‘We accept some messengers and reject others’, and they want to take a path between disbelief and belief, thinking that this will save them.
151. Those who follow such a stance as regards their faith are in fact disbelievers, for disbelieving in some of the messengers is similar to disbelief in Allah and all His messengers. Allah has prepared a humilating punishment for all disbelievers on the Day of Rising as a just recompense for their deliberate refusal to follow the faith as required of them.
152. Those who believe in Allah, declare His Oneness, do not associate any partner with Him, accept all of His messengers and do not make a distinction between any of them as the disbelievers do, Allah will give such people a great reward for their faith and good actions. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful towards the servant who repents to Him.
153. The Jews ask you, O Messenger, to bring down to them at once a Book from the heaven, as it occurred with Moses, to prove your truthfulness. Do not be surprised at them as their predecessors had asked Moses for something much greater when they asked him to show them Allah openly. As a consequence for what they said they were seized by a thunderbolt. Then Allah brought them back to life and they went on to worship the calf instead of Allah after clear proofs came to them indicating Allah’s Oneness and Him being the only One worthy of worship. Then He forgave them and gave Moses clear evidence against his people.
154. I frightened them by raising the mountain over them in order to take a firm promise from them to practice what it contained and we said to them, ‘Enter the gate of Jerusalem in prostration by bowing your heads’. They entered dragging their buttocks. I also said to them, ‘Do not disobey Me by fishing on the Saturday’; but they rebelled and went against My command. I took a firm promise from them for this, but they broke their promise.
155. I distanced them from My mercy because they broke the promise that was taken from them, disbelieved in Allah’s words, boldly killed the prophets and said to Muhammad (peace be upon him), 'Our hearts are covered, so we cannot understand what you say’ That is not the case. Instead, Allah has sealed their hearts so no good reaches them. They only have a little faith, which will not be of any use to them.
157. I cursed them because they proudly, but falsely, said, ‘We killed the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, the messenger of Allah’. They did not kill him as they claimed, nor did they crucify him; but they killed and crucified a man whom Allah made to resemble Jesus, so they thought the person who was killed was Jesus. Those Jews who claimed to have killed him and those Christians who surrendered him over to them are in doubt and confusion regarding the matter. They have no knowledge, but make guesses that are of no worth against the truth. Truly, they did not kill Jesus nor crucify him.
158. Instead, Allah saved Jesus from their plot and raised him in body and spirit to Himself. Allah is Mighty in His dominion and nothing can overpower Him. He is Wise in His planning, decisions and laws.
159. There is not one of the People of the Scripture except that they will believe in Jesus (peace be upon him) before his death after he descends towards the end of time. On the Day of Judgement, Jesus (peace be upon him) will bear witness against their actions, whether agreeing with the sacred law or not.
160. Because of the wrongdoings of the Jews, I prohibited them from some of the pure, edible things that used to be permitted for them, such as any hoofed animal and the fat in cows and sheep. This was also because they blocked themselves and others from Allah’s path, such that obstructing from good became a feature of theirs.
161. And because of their dealing in usury after Allah had prohibited them from consuming it and because of their taking the wealth of people without any legitimate right. I have prepared for those of them who disbelieve a punishment causing pain.
162. But those Jews who are firm and well grounded in knowledge, and have faith, believe in the Qur’ān that Allah has revealed to you, O Messenger, as they believe in the books that He revealed to the messengers before you (such as the Torah and the Gospel). They also establish the prayer, give Zakat of their wealth, accept Allah as the only One worthy of worship without any partner and believe in the Day of Judgement. Allah will give a great reward to those who have these qualities.
163. I have sent revelation to you, O Messenger, as I had sent revelation to the prophets before you. This revelation to you is not something strange or unexpected. I had sent revelation to Noah and to the prophets who came after him. I sent revelation to Abraham and his two sons, Ishmael and Isaac, and to Jacob, the son of Isaac, and to the Tribes (which refers to the prophets that were from the twelve tribes of the Israelites from the children of Jacob). I also gave David a book called the Psalms.
164. I sent messengers whom I have mentioned to you in the Qur’ān; and I also sent messengers whom I have not mentioned to you in the Qur’ān for a reason. And Allah spoke to Moses without an intermediary in a manner that befits Him, as an honour to Moses.
165. I sent messengers to give good news of a generous reward for those who have faith in Allah, and to warn those who disbelieve in Him of a painful punishment, so that people will not have any argument to present as an excuse against Me after I have sent the messengers. I am Mighty in My dominion and Wise in My decision.
166. If the Jews disbelieve in you O Messenger, then Allah bears testimony to the truth of the Qur’ān that He has revealed to you, He has revealed knowledge of His to His servants so that they may know what He willed regarding what He likes and is pleased with, as well as what He dislikes and condemns. Together with Allah’s testimony, the angels also bear testimony to the truth of what you brought. Allah’s testimony is sufficient and no one else’s testimony is required.
168. Those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and wrong themselves by remaining in disbelief, Allah will not forgive them as long as they continue in disbelief, nor will He guide them to a path of salvation from His punishment,
170. O people, the Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) has come to you with guidance and the true religion from Allah. So accept what he has brought to you, as this will be better for you in this world and the Afterlife. If you disbelieve in Allah, He is in no need of your faith. Your disbelief does not harm Him, because He controls everything in the heavens, everything in the earth and everything in between. Allah knows who deserves guidance and makes it easy for them. He also knows who does not deserve it and makes them blind to it. He is Wise in His words, actions, laws and decree.
171. Say, O Messenger, to the Christians who received the Gospel: Do not overstep the limits in your religion and do not say anything but the truth about Allah in relation to Jesus. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only Allah’s messenger sent with the truth. He created him by His word which He sent with Gabriel to Mary, which was the word ‘Be’, and he became. It was a breath from Allah which Gabriel blew with Allah’s instruction. So have faith in Allah and all His messengers without making a distinction between them. Do not say, ‘The gods are three’. Avoid saying this false statement and it will be better for you in this world and the Afterlife. Allah is the only One God free of any partner or child. He is Self-sufficient. The dominion of the heavens, the earth and whatever is in between the two is His. He is sufficient as a guardian to carry out the affairs of His creation.
172. Jesus, son of Mary, will never be proud and reject being a servant of Allah. The close angels who do not go against Allah’s instruction and who do as they are instructed will also never disregard being Allah’s servants. How, then, do you take Jesus as a god? How do the idolaters take angels as gods? If anyone rejects worshipping Allah and turns away from it, the He will gather all of them before Him on the Day of Rising and will recompense each one with what they deserve.
173. Those who have faith in Allah, accept His Messenger and do good actions with sincerity in agreement with the sacred law, He will give them the reward of their actions without any reduction. In addition, He will give them more out of His grace and kindness. As for those who scorned Allah’s worship and obedience and were arrogant, He will punish them with a painful torment. Besides Allah, they will not find any friend to bring any benefit to them nor any helper to protect them from harm.
174. O People, a clear proof and plain evidence, which leaves no room for excuse and removes all doubt, has come to you from your Lord. He has sent down to you a clear light in the form of this Qur’ān, which falsehood cannot touch from any angle and which is a revelation from the Wise and Praised One.
175. Those who have faith in Allah and hold on to the Qur’ān that He revealed to their Prophet, Allah will have mercy on them by entering them into Paradise, and He will increase their reward and raise their ranks. He will enable them to tread the straight path which has no crookedness: the path that leads to the gardens of Paradise.
• بيان أن المسيح بشر، وأن أمه كذلك، وأن الضالين من النصارى غلوا فيهما حتى أخرجوهما من حد البشرية.
1. The verses show that the Messiah and his mother were both human and that the Christians who were deviated went to an extreme with respect to them by claiming that they had attributes of divinity.
• بيان بطلان شرك النصارى القائلين بالتثليث، وتنزيه الله تعالى عن أن يكون له شريك أو شبيه أو مقارب، وبيان انفراده - سبحانه - بالوحدانية في الذات والأسماء والصفات.
2. Allah shows the falsehood of the idolatry of the Christians who believed in the Trinity, and that Allah is free of having any partner, likeness or equal. It is also established that Allah is unique in His Oneness of essence, names and attributes.
• إثبات أن عيسى عليه السلام والملائكة جميعهم عباد مخلوقون لا يستكبرون عن الاعتراف بعبوديتهم لله تعالى والانقياد لأوامره، فكيف يسوغ اتخاذهم آلهة مع كونهم عبيدًا لله تعالى؟!
3. Jesus (peace be upon him), as well as all the angels, are created servants of Allah who are not too proud to admit their servitude to Allah and to submit to His laws. How can they be taken as gods when they themselves are the servants of Allah?
• في الدين حجج وبراهين عقلية تدفع الشبهات، ونور وهداية تدفع الحيرة والشهوات.
176. They ask you, O Messenger, to give them a ruling with respect to the inheritance of the person who dies without any direct heirs, such as a father or child. Say: Allah explains the ruling with respect to such a person: If a person without any parent or child dies and he has a full sister or a half sister, she will receive half of the wealth he leaves – it being her set share. His full brother or half brother will receive whatever wealth he leaves behind by way of agnation, if there are no stipulated heirs; yet if there are stipulated heirs, he will inherit the balance that remains. If there are two or more full sisters or half sisters, they will inherit two thirds as their set share. If there are male and female (full or half) siblings, they will inherit by way of agnation in accordance with the rule: the male receives equivalent to the share of two females, which means that the share of the male will be double that of the female. Allah explains to you the ruling for the person who dies without direct heirs, as well as other laws of inheritance, so that you do not go astray in this regard. Allah knows everything and nothing is hidden from Him.
• عناية الله بجميع أحوال الورثة في تقسيم الميراث عليهم.
1. The laws and cases of inheritance for the person who dies without direct heirs, with a clarification of the shares of the heirs that arise in each case.
• الأصل هو حِلُّ الأكل من كل بهيمة الأنعام، سوى ما خصه الدليل بالتحريم، أو ما كان صيدًا يعرض للمحرم في حجه أو عمرته.
2. The principle of the sacred law is that it is permissible to eat all animals besides those excluded with a proof of prohibition, or land game that comes before a person in the state of sanctity during the pilgrimage of Hajj or Umrah.
• النهي عن استحلال المحرَّمات، ومنها: محظورات الإحرام، والصيد في الحرم، والقتال في الأشهر الحُرُم، واستحلال الهدي بغصب ونحوه، أو مَنْع وصوله إلى محله.
3. It is prohibited to regard as lawful those things that have been made unlawful. These include things prohibited when in the state of Ihram, hunting in the Sanctuary, fighting in the sacred months and violation of the sanctity of the sacrificial animal by taking it or by preventing it from reaching its place of sacrifice.
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