(4) Before, as guidance for the people. And He revealed the Criterion [i.e., the Qur’ān]. Indeed, those who disbelieve in the verses of Allāh will have a severe punishment, and Allāh is Exalted in Might, the Owner of Retribution.
- i.e., He who restores justice by punishing those who persist in wrongdoing, fail to heed warnings and are unrepentant.
(7) It is He who has sent down to you, [O Muḥammad], the Book; in it are verses [that are] precise - they are the foundation of the Book - and others unspecific. As for those in whose hearts is deviation [from truth], they will follow that of it which is unspecific, seeking discord and seeking an interpretation [suitable to them]. And no one knows its [true] interpretation except Allāh. But those firm in knowledge say, "We believe in it. All [of it] is from our Lord." And no one will be reminded except those of understanding,
- Those which are stated in such a way that they are open to more than one interpretation or whose meaning is known only to Allāh, such as the opening letters of certain sūrahs.
(13) Already there has been for you a sign in the two armies which met [in combat at Badr] - one fighting in the cause of Allāh and another of disbelievers. They saw them [to be] twice their [own] number by [their] eyesight. But Allāh supports with His victory whom He wills. Indeed in that is a lesson for those of vision.
- The believers saw the disbelievers to be double their own number preceding the battle of Badr, while, in fact, they were three times their number.
(14) Beautified for people is the love of that which they desire - of women and sons, heaped-up sums of gold and silver, fine branded horses, and cattle and tilled land. That is the enjoyment of worldly life, but Allāh has with Him the best return [i.e., Paradise].
(15) Say, "Shall I inform you of [something] better than that? For those who fear Allāh will be gardens in the presence of their Lord beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally, and purified spouses and approval from Allāh. And Allāh is Seeing [i.e., aware] of [His] servants -
(18) Allāh witnesses that there is no deity except Him, and [so do] the angels and those of knowledge - [that He is] maintaining [creation] in justice. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
(19) Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allāh is Islām. And those who were given the Scripture did not differ except after knowledge had come to them - out of jealous animosity between themselves. And whoever disbelieves in the verses of Allāh, then indeed, Allāh is swift in [taking] account.
(20) So if they argue with you, say, "I have submitted myself to Allāh [in Islām], and [so have] those who follow me." And say to those who were given the Scripture and [to] the unlearned, "Have you submitted yourselves?" And if they submit [in Islām], they are rightly guided; but if they turn away - then upon you is only the [duty of] notification. And Allāh is Seeing of [His] servants.
- Those who had no scripture (i.e., the pagans).
(23) Do you not consider, [O Muḥammad], those who were given a portion of the Scripture? They are invited to the Scripture of Allāh that it should arbitrate between them; then a party of them turns away, and they are refusing.
- Referring to the Jews of Madīnah who refused to implement the rulings given by Allāh in the Torah or to acknowledge the Prophet (ﷺ), whose coming was mentioned therein.
(26) Say, "O Allāh, Owner of Sovereignty, You give sovereignty to whom You will and You take sovereignty away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and You humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are over all things competent.
(27) You cause the night to enter the day, and You cause the day to enter the night; and You bring the living out of the dead, and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give provision to whom You will without account [i.e., limit or measure]."
(28) Let not believers take disbelievers as allies [i.e., supporters or protectors] rather than believers. And whoever [of you] does that has nothing [i.e., no association] with Allāh, except when taking precaution against them in prudence. And Allāh warns you of Himself, and to Allāh is the [final] destination.
- When fearing harm from an enemy, the believer may pretend as long as his heart and intention are not affected.
(30) The Day every soul will find what it has done of good present [before it] and what it has done of evil, it will wish that between itself and that [evil] was a great distance. And Allāh warns you of Himself, and Allāh is Kind to [His] servants."
(35) [Mention, O Muḥammad], when the wife of ʿImrān said, "My Lord, indeed I have pledged to You what is in my womb, consecrated [for Your service], so accept this from me. Indeed, You are the Hearing, the Knowing."
(36) But when she delivered her, she said, "My Lord, I have delivered a female." And Allāh was most knowing of what she delivered, and the male is not like the female. "And I have named her Mary, and I seek refuge for her in You and [for] her descendants from Satan, the expelled [from the mercy of Allāh]."
(37) So her Lord accepted her with good acceptance and caused her to grow in a good manner and put her in the care of Zechariah. Every time Zechariah entered upon her in the prayer chamber, he found with her provision. He said, "O Mary, from where is this [coming] to you?" She said, "It is from Allāh. Indeed, Allāh provides for whom He wills without account."
(39) So the angels called him while he was standing in prayer in the chamber, "Indeed, Allāh gives you good tidings of John, confirming a word from Allāh and [who will be] honorable, abstaining [from women], and a prophet from among the righteous."
- Referring to the prophet Jesus (upon whom be peace) , who was conceived merely by a command from Allāh - the word "Be."
(41) He said, "My Lord, make for me a sign." He said, "Your sign is that you will not [be able to] speak to the people for three days except by gesture. And remember your Lord much and exalt [Him with praise] in the evening and the morning."
(44) That is from the news of the unseen which We reveal to you, [O Muḥammad]. And you were not with them when they cast their pens as to which of them should be responsible for Mary. Nor were you with them when they disputed.
(45) [And mention] when the angels said, "O Mary, indeed Allāh gives you good tidings of a word from Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary - distinguished in this world and the Hereafter and among those brought near [to Allāh].
(49) And [make him] a messenger to the Children of Israel, [who will say], 'Indeed I have come to you with a sign from your Lord in that I design for you from clay [that which is] like the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird by permission of Allāh. And I cure the blind [from birth] and the leper, and I give life to the dead - by permission of Allāh. And I inform you of what you eat and what you store in your houses. Indeed in that is a sign for you, if you are believers.
(50) And [I have come] confirming what was before me of the Torah and to make lawful for you some of what was forbidden to you. And I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear Allāh and obey me.
(52) But when Jesus felt [persistence in] disbelief from them, he said, "Who are my supporters for [the cause of] Allāh?" The disciples said, "We are supporters for Allāh. We have believed in Allāh and testify that we are Muslims [submitting to Him].
(55) [Mention] when Allāh said, "O Jesus, indeed I will take you and raise you to Myself and purify [i.e., free] you from those who disbelieve and make those who follow you [in submission to Allāh alone] superior to those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. Then to Me is your return, and I will judge between you concerning that in which you used to differ.
(61) Then whoever argues with you about it after [this] knowledge has come to you - say, "Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allāh upon the liars [among us]."
(64) Say, "O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you - that we will not worship except Allāh and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allāh." But if they turn away, then say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Him]."
- By obeying another in disobedience to Allāh.
(68) Indeed, the most worthy of Abraham among the people are those who followed him [in submission to Allāh] and this prophet [i.e., Muḥammad (ﷺ)] and those who believe [in his message]. And Allāh is the Ally of the believers.
(72) And a faction of the People of the Scripture say [to each other], "Believe in that which was revealed to the believers at the beginning of the day and reject it at its end that perhaps they will return [i.e., abandon their religion],
(73) And do not trust except those who follow your religion." Say, "Indeed, the [true] guidance is the guidance of Allāh. [Do you fear] lest someone be given [knowledge] like you were given or that they would [thereby] argue with you before your Lord?" Say, "Indeed, [all] bounty is in the hand of Allāh - He grants it to whom He wills. And Allāh is all-Encompassing and Wise."
(75) And among the People of the Scripture is he who, if you entrust him with a great amount [of wealth], he will return it to you. And among them is he who, if you entrust him with a [single] coin, he will not return it to you unless you are constantly standing over him [demanding it]. That is because they say, "There is no blame upon us concerning the unlearned." And they speak untruth about Allāh while they know [it].
- The Jews do not consider it a sin to cheat or lie to a gentile or a pagan.
(77) Indeed, those who exchange the covenant of Allāh and their [own] oaths for a small price will have no share in the Hereafter, and Allāh will not speak to them or look at them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them; and they will have a painful punishment.
(78) And indeed, there is among them a party who alter the Scripture with their tongues so you may think it is from the Scripture, but it is not from the Scripture. And they say, "This is from Allāh," but it is not from Allāh. And they speak untruth about Allāh while they know.
(79) It is not for a human [prophet] that Allāh should give him the Scripture and authority and prophethood and then he would say to the people, "Be servants to me rather than Allāh," but [instead, he would say], "Be pious scholars of the Lord because of what you have taught of the Scripture and because of what you have studied."
- Or any believer.
- Or in the case of Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ), "the Book" (i.e., the Qur’ān) .
(81) And [recall, O People of the Scripture], when Allāh took the covenant of the prophets, [saying], "Whatever I give you of the Scripture and wisdom and then there comes to you a messenger confirming what is with you, you [must] believe in him and support him." [Allāh] said, "Have you acknowledged and taken upon that My commitment?" They said, "We have acknowledged it." He said, "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses."
(84) Say, "We have believed in Allāh and in what was revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Descendants [al-Asbāṭ], and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [submitting] to Him."
(91) Indeed, those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers - never would the [whole] capacity of the earth in gold be accepted from one of them if he would [seek to] ransom himself with it. For those there will be a painful punishment, and they will have no helpers.
(93) All food was lawful to the Children of Israel except what Israel [i.e., Jacob] had made unlawful to himself before the Torah was revealed. Say, [O Muḥammad], "So bring the Torah and recite it, if you should be truthful."
(97) In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it [i.e., the Ḥaram] shall be safe. And [due] to Allāh from the people is a pilgrimage to the House - for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves [i.e., refuses] - then indeed, Allāh is free from need of the worlds.
- He has no need for His servants' worship; it is they who are in need of Him.
(99) Say, "O People of the Scripture, why do you avert from the way of Allāh those who believe, seeking to make it [seem] deviant, while you are witnesses [to the truth]? And Allāh is not unaware of what you do."
(101) And how could you disbelieve while to you are being recited the verses of Allāh and among you is His Messenger? And whoever holds firmly to Allāh has [indeed] been guided to a straight path.
- i.e., adhering to His ordinances strictly, then trusting in Him and relying upon Him completely.
(103) And hold firmly to the rope of Allāh all together and do not become divided. And remember the favor of Allāh upon you - when you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and you became, by His favor, brothers. And you were on the edge of a pit of the Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allāh make clear to you His verses that you may be guided.
- Referring either to His covenant or the Qur’ān.
(106) On the Day [some] faces will turn white and [some] faces will turn black. As for those whose faces turn black, [to them it will be said], "Did you disbelieve [i.e., reject faith] after your belief? Then taste the punishment for what you used to reject."
(110) You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allāh. If only the People of the Scripture had believed, it would have been better for them. Among them are believers, but most of them are defiantly disobedient.
(112) They have been put under humiliation [by Allāh] wherever they are overtaken, except for a rope [i.e., covenant] from Allāh and a rope [i.e., treaty] from the people [i.e., the Muslims]. And they have drawn upon themselves anger from Allāh and have been put under destitution. That is because they disbelieved in [i.e., rejected] the verses of Allāh and killed the prophets without right. That is because they disobeyed and [habitually] transgressed.
- Once they have surrendered, the People of the Scripture retain their rights and honor (in spite of their refusal of Islām) through payment of the jizyah tax in place of zakāh and military service due from Muslims. They are then under the protection of the Islāmic state.
(117) The example of what they spend in this worldly life is like that of a wind containing frost which strikes the harvest of a people who have wronged themselves [i.e., sinned] and destroys it. And Allāh has not wronged them, but they wrong themselves.
(118) O you who have believed, do not take as intimates those other than yourselves [i.e., believers], for they will not spare you [any] ruin. They wish you would have hardship. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, and what their breasts conceal is greater. We have certainly made clear to you the signs, if you will use reason.
(119) Here you are loving them but they are not loving you, while you believe in the Scripture - all of it. And when they meet you, they say, "We believe." But when they are alone, they bite their fingertips at you in rage. Say, "Die in your rage. Indeed, Allāh is Knowing of that within the breasts."
- That of it revealed by Allāh, not what was subsequently altered by men.
(120) If good touches you, it distresses them; but if harm strikes you, they rejoice at it. And if you are patient and fear Allāh, their plot will not harm you at all. Indeed, Allāh is encompassing of what they do.
(125) Yes, if you remain patient and conscious of Allāh and they [i.e., the enemy] come upon you [attacking] in rage, your Lord will reinforce you with five thousand angels having marks [of distinction]."
(135) And those who, when they commit an immorality or wrong themselves [by transgression], remember Allāh and seek forgiveness for their sins - and who can forgive sins except Allāh? - and [who] do not persist in what they have done while they know.
(136) Those - their reward is forgiveness from their Lord and gardens beneath which rivers flow [in Paradise], wherein they will abide eternally; and excellent is the reward of the [righteous] workers.
(140) If a wound should touch you - there has already touched the [opposing] people a wound similar to it. And these days [of varying conditions] We alternate among the people so that Allāh may make evident those who believe and [may] take to Himself from among you martyrs - and Allāh does not like the wrongdoers -
(144) Muḥammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allāh at all; but Allāh will reward the grateful.
(145) And it is not [possible] for one to die except by permission of Allāh at a decree determined. And whoever desires the reward of this world - We will give him thereof; and whoever desires the reward of the Hereafter - We will give him thereof. And We will reward the grateful.
(146) And how many a prophet [fought in battle and] with him fought many religious scholars. But they never lost assurance due to what afflicted them in the cause of Allāh, nor did they weaken or submit. And Allāh loves the steadfast.
(151) We will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve for what they have associated with Allāh of which He had not sent down [any] authority. And their refuge will be the Fire, and wretched is the residence of the wrongdoers.
(152) And Allāh had certainly fulfilled His promise to you when you were killing them [i.e., the enemy] by His permission until [the time] when you lost courage and fell to disputing about the order [given by the Prophet (ﷺ)] and disobeyed after He had shown you that which you love. Among you are some who desire this world, and among you are some who desire the Hereafter. Then He turned you back from them [defeated] that He might test you. And He has already forgiven you, and Allāh is the possessor of bounty for the believers.
(153) [Remember] when you [fled and] climbed [the mountain] without looking aside at anyone while the Messenger was calling you from behind. So Allāh repaid you with distress upon distress so you would not grieve for that which had escaped you [of victory and spoils of war] or [for] that which had befallen you [of injury and death]. And Allāh is [fully] Aware of what you do.
(154) Then after distress, He sent down upon you security [in the form of] drowsiness, overcoming a faction of you, while another faction worried about themselves, thinking of Allāh other than the truth - the thought of ignorance, saying, "Is there anything for us [to have done] in this matter?" Say, "Indeed, the matter belongs completely to Allāh." They conceal within themselves what they will not reveal to you. They say, "If there was anything we could have done in the matter, we [i.e., some of us] would not have been killed right here." Say, "Even if you had been inside your houses, those decreed to be killed would have come out to their death beds." [It was] so that Allāh might test what is in your breasts and purify what is in your hearts. And Allāh is Knowing of that within the breasts.
(155) Indeed, those of you who turned back on the day the two armies met [at Uḥud] - it was Satan who caused them to slip because of some [blame] they had earned. But Allāh has already forgiven them. Indeed, Allāh is Forgiving and Forbearing.
(156) O you who have believed, do not be like those who disbelieved and said about their brothers when they traveled through the land or went out to fight, "If they had been with us, they would not have died or have been killed," so Allāh makes that [misconception] a regret within their hearts. And it is Allāh who gives life and causes death, and Allāh is Seeing of what you do.
(159) So by mercy from Allāh, [O Muḥammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allāh. Indeed, Allāh loves those who rely [upon Him].
(161) It is not [attributable] to any prophet that he would act unfaithfully [in regard to war booty]. And whoever betrays, [taking unlawfully], will come with what he took on the Day of Resurrection. Then will every soul be [fully] compensated for what it earned, and they will not be wronged.
(164) Certainly did Allāh confer [great] favor upon the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from themselves, reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book [i.e., the Qur’ān] and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest error.
(165) Why [is it that] when a [single] disaster struck you [on the day of Uḥud], although you had struck [the enemy in the battle of Badr] with one twice as great, you said, "From where is this?" Say, "It is from yourselves [i.e., due to your sin]." Indeed, Allāh is over all things competent.
(167) And that He might make evident those who are hypocrites. For it was said to them, "Come, fight in the way of Allāh or [at least] defend." They said, "If we had known [there would be] battle, we would have followed you." They were nearer to disbelief that day than to faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And Allāh is most knowing of what they conceal -
(170) Rejoicing in what Allāh has bestowed upon them of His bounty, and they receive good tidings about those [to be martyred] after them who have not yet joined them - that there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.
(173) Those to whom people [i.e., hypocrites] said, "Indeed, the people have gathered against you, so fear them." But it [merely] increased them in faith, and they said, "Sufficient for us is Allāh, and [He is] the best Disposer of affairs."
- The one entrusted and relied upon; sufficient to manage all matters.
(176) And do not be grieved, [O Muḥammad], by those who hasten into disbelief. Indeed, they will never harm Allāh at all. Allāh intends that He should give them no share in the Hereafter, and for them is a great punishment.
(178) And let not those who disbelieve ever think that [because] We extend their time [of enjoyment] it is better for them. We only extend it for them so that they may increase in sin, and for them is a humiliating punishment.
(179) Allāh would not leave the believers in that [state] you are in [presently] until He separates the evil from the good. Nor would Allāh reveal to you the unseen. But [instead], Allāh chooses of His messengers whom He wills, so believe in Allāh and His messengers. And if you believe and fear Him, then for you is a great reward.
(180) And let not those who [greedily] withhold what Allāh has given them of His bounty ever think that it is better for them. Rather, it is worse for them. Their necks will be encircled by what they withheld on the Day of Resurrection. And to Allāh belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth. And Allāh, of what you do, is [fully] Aware.
(181) Allāh has certainly heard the statement of those [Jews] who said, "Indeed, Allāh is poor, while we are rich." We will record what they said and their killing of the prophets without right and will say, "Taste the punishment of the Burning Fire.
(183) [They are] those who said, "Indeed, Allāh has taken our promise not to believe any messenger until he brings us an offering which fire [from heaven] will consume." Say, "There have already come to you messengers before me with clear proofs and [even] that of which you speak. So why did you kill them, if you should be truthful?"
(185) Every soul will taste death, and you will only be given your [full] compensation on the Day of Resurrection. So he who is drawn away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise has attained [his desire]. And what is the life of this world except the enjoyment of delusion.
(186) You will surely be tested in your possessions and in yourselves. And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allāh much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allāh - indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of resolve.
(187) And [mention, O Muḥammad], when Allāh took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture, [saying], "You must make it clear [i.e., explain it] to the people and not conceal it." But they threw it away behind their backs and exchanged it for a small price. And wretched is that which they purchased.
(188) And never think that those who rejoice in what they have perpetrated and like to be praised for what they did not do - never think them [to be] in safety from the punishment, and for them is a painful punishment.
(191) Who remember Allāh while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides and give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth, [saying], "Our Lord, You did not create this aimlessly; exalted are You [above such a thing]; then protect us from the punishment of the Fire.
(193) Our Lord, indeed we have heard a caller [i.e., Prophet Muḥammad (ﷺ)] calling to faith, [saying], 'Believe in your Lord,' and we have believed. Our Lord, so forgive us our sins and remove from us our misdeeds and cause us to die among the righteous.
(195) And their Lord responded to them, "Never will I allow to be lost the work of [any] worker among you, whether male or female; you are of one another. So those who emigrated or were evicted from their homes or were harmed in My cause or fought or were killed - I will surely remove from them their misdeeds, and I will surely admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow as reward from Allāh, and Allāh has with Him the best reward."
(199) And indeed, among the People of the Scripture are those who believe in Allāh and what was revealed to you and what was revealed to them, [being] humbly submissive to Allāh. They do not exchange the verses of Allāh for a small price. Those will have their reward with their Lord. Indeed, Allāh is swift in account.
(200) O you who have believed, persevere and endure and remain stationed and fear Allāh that you may be successful.
- In your religion and in the face of your enemies.
- In patience, outlasting your enemies, and against your own evil inclinations.
- Posted at your positions against the enemy or in the mosques, awaiting prayers.